Conclusions and Recommendations
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While critically reviewing the current knowledge on the role of urban trees and forests in cities, it becomes clear that trees, from a single street tree to an urban forest, provide an abundance of in environmental ecosystem services – and almost inevitably, cause some disservices as well.
The urban environment is becoming a major ecosystem type in Europe and in the world. In some densely populated regions, cities are even coming to dominate the landscape. However, it is important for us to consider that cities are extraordinarily complex, with a heterogeneous structure and huge variety of activities. They are the site of intense flows of energy and matter, amplified temperature extremes and decreased soil water availability, and often unique habitats – both above ground in streets and parks, and underground in sewage or utility systems. Recognition of the city as a full-fledged ecosystem leads citizens to realize that even our built environment is part of our nature, and that it is...