Improvement of the Embedding Capacity for Audio Watermarking Method Using Non-negative Matrix Factorization

  • Harumi Murata
  • Akio Ogihara
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 63)


We propose a watermarking method using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for audio signals. NMF is applied to the host signal, and the amplitude spectrogram of the host signal is factorized into the basis matrix and the activation matrix, which are nonnegative matrices. The notes are estimated from the activation matrix, and the estimated notes are regarded as root notes. In the existing method, one-bit watermark is embedded into the dominant note corresponding to the root note. However, it is difficult to say that the embedding capacity is enough. Hence, in the proposed method, watermarks are embedded into the mediant and leading notes in addition to the dominant note. Up to three-bit watermarks can be embedded into one note while maintaining a detection accuracy.


Audio watermarking Nonnegative matrix factorization Diatonic chord 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lie, W.N., Chang, L.C.: Robust and High-Quality Time-Domain Audio Watermarking Based on Low-Frequency Amplitude Modification. IEEE Trans. on Multimedia. vol.8, no.1, pp.46–59 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murata, H., Ogihara, A., Uesaka, M.: Sound Quality Evaluation for Audio Watermarking Based on Phase Shift Keying Using BCH Code. IEICE Trans. Inf. & Syst. vol.E98-D, no.1, pp.89–94 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee, D.D., Seung, H.S.: Algorithms for Non-negative Matrix Factorization. Neural Inf. Process. Syst. vol.13, pp.556–562 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murata, H., Ogihara, A.: Digital Watermark for Real Musical Instrument Sounds Using Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In: International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications, pp.677–680 (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    IHC Evaluation Criteria and Competition,, Accessed December 21, 2015.
  6. 6.
    Classic Anthology 100 Played Easily for Adults. RittorMusic (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harumi Murata
    • 1
  • Akio Ogihara
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Information Engineering, School of EngineeringChukyo UniversityToyotaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Informatics, Faculty of EngineeringKindai UniversityHigashi-HiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations