The Effects of Iodine Excess

  • Angela M. LeungEmail author


Iodine is a necessary micronutrient and essential for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Iodine exposure may also occur as a result from iodine fortifications programs (through salt iodization, fortification of foods, or other routes), medications, dietary supplements, topical iodine antiseptics, radiographic iodinated contrast media, and other sources. Excess iodine exposure, particularly among individuals with underlying thyroid disease, has the potential for inducing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction can be transient or permanent. With the exception of specific medical indications for the use of supraphysiologic iodine, excessive iodine ingestion and/or exposure should be avoided.


Iodine Excess Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction 



Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism


Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis


Computed tomography


International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders


Iodine Global Network


Potassium iodide


Lowest observed adverse effect level


Sodium/iodide symporter


No observed adverse effect level


Recommended Dietary Allowance


Saturated solution of potassium iodide


Thyroid stimulating hormone


Tolerable upper level


Uncertainty factors


Urinary iodine concentration


United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund


World Health Organization



This work was supported in part by NIH 5K23HD068552.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology (111D), UCLA David Geffen School of MedicineVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA

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