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The Effects of Iodine Excess

  • Angela M. LeungEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Iodine is a necessary micronutrient and essential for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones. Iodine exposure may also occur as a result from iodine fortifications programs (through salt iodization, fortification of foods, or other routes), medications, dietary supplements, topical iodine antiseptics, radiographic iodinated contrast media, and other sources. Excess iodine exposure, particularly among individuals with underlying thyroid disease, has the potential for inducing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction can be transient or permanent. With the exception of specific medical indications for the use of supraphysiologic iodine, excessive iodine ingestion and/or exposure should be avoided.

Keywords

Iodine Excess Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction 

Abbreviations

AIH

Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism

AIT

Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

CT

Computed tomography

ICCIDD

International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

IGN

Iodine Global Network

KI

Potassium iodide

LOAEL

Lowest observed adverse effect level

NIS

Sodium/iodide symporter

NOAEL

No observed adverse effect level

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

SSKI

Saturated solution of potassium iodide

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

TUL

Tolerable upper level

UF

Uncertainty factors

UIC

Urinary iodine concentration

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported in part by NIH 5K23HD068552.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology (111D), UCLA David Geffen School of MedicineVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare SystemLos AngelesUSA

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