Advertisement

HVAC Management in Health Facilities

  • Umberto MoscatoEmail author
  • Alice Borghini
  • Adele Anna Teleman
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Public Health book series (BRIEFSPUBLIC)

Abstract

The errors in the design, installation and maintenance of an air-conditioning system within a health facility appear to have consequences that are more serious and complex than those that can be generally hypothesized and verified in the case of residential facilities or offices. This is also due to the presence in hospitals of patients with immune system deficiency. The use of a risk matrix can help to evaluate and better manage the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning) system in healthcare facilities, also allowing to answer questions relating the need to clean the air-conditioning systems. In fact, the latter is associated not only with the reduction of microorganisms, but also with the risk of spreading microorganisms and chemical particles in the environment.

Keywords

Healthcare facilities HVAC system hygiene HVAC management Hospital air quality 

References

  1. Ahmad I, Tansel B, Mitrani JD. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality. Environ Monit Assess. 2001;72(3):265–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. ANSI/ASHRAE Standards. Gravimetric and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter. Atlanta: ANSI. No.52.1;1992.Google Scholar
  3. ANSI/ASHRAE Standards. Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size. Atlanta: ANSI. No.52.2;2012.Google Scholar
  4. ANSI/ASHRAE Standards. Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size. Supplement Addenda a, b and d. Atlanta: ANSI. No.52.2;2015.Google Scholar
  5. ASHRAE Standards. Health care facilities. In: ASHRAE. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning applications. Atlanta: ASHRAE Handbook; 1995.Google Scholar
  6. ASHRAE Standards. Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers. Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta: ASHRAE. No.62;1999.1–27.Google Scholar
  7. Astley P, Capolongo S, Gola M, Tartaglia A. Operative and design adaptability in healthcare facilities. Technè. 2015;9:162–70. doi: 10.13128/Techne-16118.Google Scholar
  8. Baglioni A, Capolongo S. Ergonomics in planning and reconstruction. Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia. 2002;24(4):405–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Capolongo S. Social aspects and well-being for improving healing processes’ effectiveness. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2016;52(1):11–4. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Capolongo S, Bellini E, Nachiero D, Rebecchi A, Buffoli M. Soft qualities in healthcare Method and tools for soft qualities design in hospitals’ built environments. Ann Ig. 2014;26(4):391–9. doi: 10.7416/ai.2014.1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Capolongo S, Gola M, di Noia M, Nickolova M, Nachiero D, Rebecchi A, et al. Social sustainability in healthcare facilities: a rating tool for analyzing and improving social aspects in environments of care. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2016;52(1):15–23. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_06.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for CDC; 2003. 52:No. RR-10.Google Scholar
  13. CTI. UNI ISO 11425. Impianto di ventilazione e condizionamento a contaminazione controllata (VCCC) per il blocco operatorio - Progettazione, installazione, messa in marcia, qualifica, gestione e manutenzione. Milano: Comitato Tecnico Italiano; 2011.Google Scholar
  14. D’Alessandro D, Tedesco P, Rebecchi A, Capolongo S. Water use and water saving in Italian hospitals. A preliminary investigation. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2016;52(1):56–62. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_11.
  15. Hanssen SO. HVAC: the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate. Indoor Air. 2004;14(Suppl7):195–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00288.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Health Quality Ontario (Medical Advisory Secretariat Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care—Ontario). Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2005;5(17):1–52.Google Scholar
  17. Kilbourne EM. Illness due to thermal extremes. In: Wallace RB (ed). Maxcy-Rosenau-Last, Public Health & Preventive Medicine. Stamford, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange. 14th ed. 1998. 607–17.Google Scholar
  18. Laurenti P, Boccia S, Bruno S, Moscato U, Quaranta G, Ficarra MG. Il Rischio in Ospedale. In: Ricciardi W, editor. Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e Sanità Pubblica. Napoli: Idelson- Gnocchi; 2013. p. 851–900.Google Scholar
  19. Mendell MJ, Lei-Gomez Q, Mirer AG, Seppänen O, Brunner G. Risk factors in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems for occupant symptoms in US office buildings: the US EPA BASE study. Indoor Air. 2008;18(4):301–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00531.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Moscato U, Capolongo S, D’Alessandro D. Approfondimenti di Igiene ed Edilizia Ospedaliera. In: Ricciardi W, editor. Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e Sanità Pubblica. Napoli: Idelson-Gnocchi; 2013a. p. 901–35.Google Scholar
  21. Moscato U, Poscia A, Cerabona V, Wachocka M, Del Cimmuto A, et al. Igiene Ambientale. In: Ricciardi W, editor. Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e Sanità Pubblica. Napoli: Idelson-Gnocchi; 2013b. p. 295–469.Google Scholar
  22. Pittet D, Huguenin T, Dharan S, Sztajzel-Boissard J, Ducel G, Thorens JB, et al. Unusual case of lethal pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(2–1):541–4. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.154.2.8756836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rao CY, Burge HA, Chang JCS. Review of quantitative standards and guidelines for fungi in indoor air. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1996;46:899–906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ricciardi W, Angelillo IF, Brusaferro S, De Giusti M, De Vito E, Moscato U, et al. Igiene e Professioni Sanitarie. Napoli: Idelson-Gnocchi; 2015. p. 177–220.Google Scholar
  25. Sarubbi FA Jr, Kopf BB, Wilson NO, McGinnis MR, Rutala WA. Increased recovery of Aspergillus flavus from respiratory specimens during hospital construction. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125:33–8. doi: 10.1164/arrd.1982.125.1.33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. US EPA. Should you have the air ducts in your home cleaned? Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1997. No. 402-K-97-002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umberto Moscato
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alice Borghini
    • 1
  • Adele Anna Teleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Public Health Institute, Hygiene SectionUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations