Advertisement

Applications of IAQ Monitoring in International Healthcare Systems

  • Marco GolaEmail author
  • Ambra Mele
  • Barbara Tolino
  • Stefano Capolongo
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Public Health book series (BRIEFSPUBLIC)

Abstract

The attention to indoor air quality (IAQ) is required especially in all the contexts which host a large number of users, especially healthcare facilities in which there are several vulnerable users. IAQ is affected by several factors related to the occupants, their activities, building layout and its materials, ventilation and thermal parameters, maintenance, and cleaning activities. Currently, the attention in IAQ issue is not only faced by developed countries, but also from developing countries. There are several international working groups that are realizing monitoring campaigns. The paper presents a brief analysis of IAQ monitoring on some international hospitals. The selection is focused especially on chemical indoor air pollutants, but it lists also some experiences on air biological contamination. The intent is to examine the methodologies applied and the main results that the monitoring campaigns have reported.

Keywords

Indoor air quality International experiences Monitoring campaigns Chemical indoor air pollutants Air biological contamination 

References

  1. ANSI/ASHRAE. Standards. Thermal Environmental conditions for human occupancy. Atlanta: ANSI. No. 55; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Baxter DM, Perkins JL, McGhee CR, Seltzer JM. A regional comparison of mold spore concentrations outdoors and inside “clean” and “mold contaminated” Southern California buildings. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2(1):8–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berrube A, Cavereau D, Mosqueron L. La qualite de l’air interior dans les Hopitaux. Air Pur. 2011;80:31–8.Google Scholar
  4. Bessonneau V, Mosqueron L, Berrubé A, Mukensturm G, Buffet-Bataillon S, Gangneux JP, Thomas O. VOC contamination in hospital, from stationary sampling of a large panel of compounds, in view of healthcare workers and patients exposure assessment. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55535. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055535.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Buffoli M, Bellini E, Bellagarda A, di Noia M, Nickolova M, Capolongo S. Listening to people to cure people: the LpCp—tool, an instrument to evaluate hospital humanization. Ann Ig. 2014;26(5):447–55. doi: 10.7416/ai.2014.2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Capolongo S. Social aspects and well-being for improving healing processes’ effectiveness. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2016;52(1):11–4. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Capolongo S, Gola M, di Noia M, Nickolova M, Nachiero D, Rebecchi A, et al. Social sustainability in healthcare facilities: a rating tool for analyzing and improving social aspects in environments of care. Ann Ist Super Sanità. 2016;52(1):15–23. doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_06.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cristina ML, Spagnolo AM, Casini B, Baggiani A, Del Giudice P, Brusaferro S, et al. The impact of aerators on water contamination by emerging gram-negative opportunists in at-risk hospital departments. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(2):122–9. doi: 10.1086/674863.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. D’Alessandro D, Tedesco P, Rebecchi A, Capolongo S. Water use and water saving in Italian hospitals. A preliminary investigation. Ann Ist Super Sanità, 2016;52(1):56–62. Doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_11.
  10. Dascalaki EG, Gaglia AG, Balaras CA, Lagoudi A, Lagoudi A. Indoor environmental quality in Hellenic operating rooms. Energy Build. 2009;41:551–60. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.11.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Sharkawy MF, Noweir ME. Indoor air quality levels in a University Hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. J Family Community Med. 2014;21(1):39–47. doi: 10.4103/2230-8229.128778.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Europe. Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics. EN 15251:2007. Europe; 2007.Google Scholar
  13. Fang L, Clausen G, Fanger PO. Impact of temperature and humidity on chemical and sensory emissions from building materials. Indoor Air. 1999;9(3):193–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. France. Décret No. 1727 du 2 décembre 2011 relatif aux valeurs-guides pour l’air intérieur pour le formaldéhyde et le benzene. Paris; 2011.Google Scholar
  15. Gaidajis G, Angelakoglou K. Indoor mass concentrations of particulate matter in hospital environment. Glob NEST J. 2014;16(5):832–9.Google Scholar
  16. Gray WA, Vittori G, Guenther R, Vernon W, Dilwali K. Leading the way: Innovative sustainable design guidelines for operating healthy healthcare buildings. In ISIAQ. 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012. Red Hook: Curran Associates, 2012;1:1212–17.Google Scholar
  17. Lü H, Wen S, Feng Y, Wang X, Bi X, Sheng G, Fu J. Indoor and outdoor carbonyl compounds and BTEX in the hospitals of Guangzhou China. Sci Total Environ. 2006;368(2–3):574–84. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Monteiro da Silva S, Silva P, Almeida M. Thermal comfort and IAQ analysis of two portuguese hospital buildings. Engenharia Civil - Universidade do Minho. 2014;49:81–91.Google Scholar
  19. Portugal. ADENE, Nota Técnica NT-SCE-02. Metodologia para auditorias periódicas de QAI em edifícios de serviços existentes no âmbito do RSECE. Lisboa; 2009.Google Scholar
  20. Portugal. Portaria n. 353-A:2013. Condições de referência para os poluentes do ar interior dos edifícios de comércio e serviços. Ministério das Obras Públicas Transportes e Comunicações. Lisboa; 2013.Google Scholar
  21. Ras MR, Borrull F, Marcé RL. Sampling and preconcentration techniques for détermination of volatile organic compounds in air samples. Trends Anal Chem. 2009;28:347–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sautour M, Sixt N, Dalle F, L’Ollivier C, Fourquenet V, Calinon C, et al. Profiles and seasonal distribution of airborne fungi in indoor and outdoor environments at a French hospital. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(12):3766–71. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.02.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Settimo G, D’Alessandro D. European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy. Epidemiol Prev. 2014;38(6):36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Settimo G, Fuselli S, Chirico M, De Martino A, Gherardi M, Brini S, et al. Air quality in our houses – how to improve it? In our houses are present several sources of pollution that may pose a health risk to us and our loved ones. Brochure National Indoor Researcher Group (GdS), Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma; 2017. http://www.iss.it/indo. Accessed 19 January 2017
  25. Tang JW. The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6(Suppl6):S737–46. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2009.0227.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Tang CS, Chung FF, Lin MC, Wan GH, Yuan T. Impact of patient visiting activities on indoor climate in a medical intensive care unit: a 1-year longitudinal study. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:183–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.06.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Compendium Method TO-14. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air using specially prepared canisters with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. Cincinnati: USEPA; 1999.Google Scholar
  28. WHO. Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2006.Google Scholar
  29. Zhao L, Wang X, He Q, Wang H, Sheng G, Chan LY, Fu J, Blake DR. Exposure to hazardous volatile organic compounds, PM10 and CO while walking along streets in urban Guangzhou China. Atmos Environ. 2004;38(36):6177–84. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.07.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zou SC, Lee SC, Chan CY, Ho KF, Wang XM, Chan LY, Zhang ZX. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds at a landfill site in Guangzhou South China. Chemosphere. 2003;51(9):1015–22. doi: 10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00004-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Gola
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ambra Mele
    • 2
  • Barbara Tolino
    • 2
  • Stefano Capolongo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction EngineeringPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations