Expanding Conceptualizations of Work/Life in Higher Education: Looking Outside the Academy to Develop a Better Understanding Within

  • Margaret SalleeEmail author
  • Jaime Lester
Part of the Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research book series (HATR, volume 32)


Over the last two decades, work/life balance has come to occupy an increasingly important place in the higher education literature. Research has focused on policy development and usage, demographic shifts, and cultural acceptance of faculty efforts at both the meso and macro organizational levels to maintain a balance between work and family. Research in higher education has developed alongside work/family research in other disciplines, sometimes incorporating important tenets, but leaving others out. In particular, the literature has yet to integrate new frameworks from organizational studies and psychology or adopt a critical stance promoted in the literature on gendered organizations. Additionally, faculty parents remain the primary target of work/life research, neglecting the concerns of non-parenting faculty as well as all staff and students. The purpose of this chapter is to present and critique the work/life literature in higher education, introducing literature from organizational studies and psychology to illustrate how the field has built upon research from other disciplines as well as overlooked critical areas of scholarship. The chapter concludes with a set of recommendations to push the boundaries of work/life scholarship forward to generate new insights and help create a more equitable academy for all who populate it.


Work/life Faculty studies Faculty work/life Faculty productivity Faculty salary equity Work life policy Faculty agency Demographic changes Academic parenting Role theory Boundary theory Feminist theory Well-being Self determination theory Organizational features for work/life Job satisfaction 


  1. Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender & Society, 4(2), 139–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, T. D., & Finkelstein, L. M. (2014). Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: An examination of family life stage, gender, and age. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(1), 376–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armenti, C. (2004a). May babies and post tenure babies: Maternal decisions of women professors. The Review of Higher Education, 27(2), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armenti, C. (2004b). Women faculty seeking tenure and parenthood: Lessons from previous generations. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(1), 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aryee, S., Luk, V., Leung, A., & Lo, S. (1999). Role stressors, interrole conflict, and well-being: The moderating influence of spousal support and coping behaviors among employed parents in Hong Kong. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472–491.Google Scholar
  7. Austin, A. E., & Laursen, S. L. (2015). Organizational change strategies in ADVANCE Institutional Transformation projects: Synthesis of a working meeting, Boulder, CO, and East Lansing, MI.Google Scholar
  8. Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(1), 2045–2068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey, J. (2008). Work and life balance: Community college occupational deans. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 32(10), 778–792. doi: 10.1080/10668920802325713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnett, R. C. (1999). A new work-life model for the twenty-first century. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 562, 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work–family conflict and its antecedents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(2), 169–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Becher, T., & Trowler, P. (2001). Academic tribes and territories: Intellectual enquiry and the culture of the disciplines (2nd ed.). Buckingham, UK: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bedeian, A. G., Burke, B. G., & Moffett, R. G. (1988). Outcomes of work-family conflict among married male and female professionals. Journal of Management, 14(3), 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellas, M. L. (1992). The effects of marital status and wives’ employment on the salaries of faculty men: The (house) wife bonus. Gender & Society, 6(4), 609–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bellas, M. L., & Toutkoushian, R. K. (1999). Faculty time allocations and research productivity: Gender, race and family effects. The Review of Higher Education, 22(4), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bellavia, G. M., & Frone, M. R. (2005). Work-family conflict. Handbook of work stress, 113–147.Google Scholar
  17. Biernat, B. A. (1997). Employed parents’ preference for reduced job hours in relation to job and family characteristics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  18. Blanchard, C. M., Tremblay, M. A., Mask, L., & Perras, M. G. M. (2009). A combination of work environment factors and individual difference variables in work interfering with family. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2(1), 63–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bourke, J., Pajo, K., & Lewis, K. (2010). Elder care and work-life balance: Exploring the experiences of female small business owners. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online), 35(1), 17–34.Google Scholar
  20. Bristol, M. N., Abbuhl, S., Cappola, A. R., & Sonnad, S. S. (2008). Work-life policies for faculty at the top ten medical schools. Journal of Women's Health, 17(8), 1311–1320. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989, April). The developing ecology of human development: Paradigm lost or paradigm regained. In Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, MO.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, V., & Nichols, T. R. (2013). Pregnant and parenting students on campus: Policy and program implications for a growing population. Educational Policy, 27(3), 499–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruck, C. S., Allen, T. D., & Spector, P. E. (2002). The relation between work–family conflict and job satisfaction: A finer-grained analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(3), 336–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Budworth, M. H., Enns, J. R., & Rowbotham, K. (2008). Shared identity and strategic choice in dual-career couples. Gender in Management, 23(2), 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bunton, S. A., & Corrice, A. M. (2011). Evolving workplace flexibility for US medical school tenure-track faculty. Academic Medicine, 86(4), 481–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Campbell, C. M., & O’Meara, K. (2014). Faculty agency: Departmental contexts that matter in faculty careers. Research in Higher Education, 55(1), 49–74. doi: 10.1007/s11162-013-9303-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, A. M., Brawer, F. B., & Kisker, C. B. (2014). The American community college (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Comer, D. R., & Stites-Doe, S. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of faculty women’s academic-parental role balancing. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27(3), 495–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cole, J. R., & Zuckerman, H. (1987). Marriage, motherhood and research performance in science. Scientific American, 256(2), 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooke, R. A., & Rousseau, D. M. (1984). Stress and strain from family roles and work-role expectations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 252–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Cousins, K. C., & Robey, D. (2005). Human agency in a wireless world: Patterns of technology use in nomadic computing environments. Information and Organization, 15(2), 151–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crompton, R., & Lyonette, C. (2006). Work-life ‘balance’in Europe. Acta Sociologica, 49(4), 379–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Damiano-Teixeira, K. M. (2006). Managing conflicting roles: A qualitative study with female faculty members. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27(2), 310–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Drago, R., Colbeck, C. L., Stauffer, K. D., Pirretti, A., Burkum, K., Fazioli, J., Lazzaro, G., Habasevich, J. (2006). The avoidance of bias against caregiving: The case of academic faculty. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 1222–1247.Google Scholar
  39. Eagan, M. K., Stolzenberg, E. B., Berdan Lozano, J., Aragon, M. C., Suchard, M. R., & Hurtado, S. (2014). Undergraduate teaching faculty: The 2013–2014 HERI Faculty Survey. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.Google Scholar
  40. Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 124–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eikhof, D. R., Warhurst, C., & Haunschild, A. (2007). Introduction: What work? What life? What balance? Critical reflections on the work-life balance debate. Employee Relations, 29(4), 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. Retrieved from
  43. Elliott, M. (2008). Gender differences in the causes of work and family strain among academic faculty. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1/2), 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ferguson, K. E. (1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Finkel, S. K., & Olswang, S. G. (1996). Child rearing as a career impediment to women assistant professors. Review of Higher Education, 19(2), 123–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Finkel, S. K., Olswang, S. G., & She, N. (1994). The implications of childbirth on tenure and promotion for women faculty. The Review of Higher Education, 17(3), 259–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foucault, M. (1976). La volonté de savoir (Vol. 1). Paris, France: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  48. Frone, M. R. (2003). Work-family balance. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 143–162). Washington, DC, American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  49. Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992a). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(1), 65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992b). Prevalence of work-family conflict: are work and family boundaries asymmetrically permeable? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(7), 723–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gaio Santos, G., & Cabral-Cardoso, C. (2008). Work-family culture in academia: A gendered view of work-family conflict and coping strategies. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 23(6), 442–457. doi: 10.1108/17542410810897553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gardner, S. K. (2013). Women faculty departures from a striving institution: Between a rock and a hard place. The Review of Higher Education, 36(3), 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gholipour, A., Bod, M., Zehtabi, M., Pirannejad, A., & Kozekanan, S. F. (2010). The feasibility of job sharing as a mechanism to balance work and life of female entrepreneurs. International Business Research, 3(3), 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Goode, W. J. (1960). A theory of role strain. American Sociological Review, 25(4), 483–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grant-Valone, E. J., & Donaldson, S. I. (2001). Consequences of work-family conflict on employee well-being over time. Work & Stress, 15(3), 214–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76–88.Google Scholar
  57. Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. (2003). The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of vocational behavior, 63(3), 510–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Greenhaus, J. H., & Allen, T. D. (2011). Work-family balance: A review and extension of the literature. Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology, 2, 165–183.Google Scholar
  59. Greenhaus, J. H., Ziegert, J. C., & Allen, T. D. (2012). When family-supportive supervision matters: Relations between multiple sources of support and work-family balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gropper, A., Gartke, K., & MacLaren, M. (2010). Work-life policies for Canadian medical faculty. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(9), 1683–1703. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gröpel, P., & Kuhl, J. (2009). Work-life balance and subjective well-being: The mediating role of need fulfillment. British Journal of Psychology, 100, 365–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Haas, L., Allard, K., & Hwang, P. (2002). The impact of organizational culture on men’s use of parental leave in Sweden. Community, Work, & Family, 5(3), 319–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hamovich, W., & Morgenstern, R. D. (1977). Children and the productivity of academic women. Journal of Higher Education, 48(6), 633–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Harris, D. A., & Giuffre, P. (2010). “The price you pay”: How female professional chefs negotiate work and family. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 27–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Helms, R. M. (2010). New challenges, new priorities: The experience of Generation X faculty. InReport for the Collaborative on Academic Careers in Higher Education. Cambridge, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  66. Hill, C., Corbett, C., & St. Rose, A. (2010). Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.Google Scholar
  67. Hill, E. J., Mead, N. T., Dean, L. R., Hafen, D. M., Gadd, R., Palmer, A. A., & Ferris, M. S. (2006). Researching the 60-hour dual-earner workweek an alternative to the “opt-out revolution”. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(9), 1184–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hobföll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J., & White, K. M. (1995). A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(4), 255–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hollenshead, C. S., Sullivan, B., Smith, G. C., August, L., & Hamilton, S. (2005). Work/family policies in higher education: Survey data and case studies of policy implementation. In J. W. Curtis (Ed.), The challenge of balancing faculty careers and family work, New directions for higher education (Vol. 130, pp. 41–65). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  71. Jones, S. J., & Taylor, C. M. (2013). Work and life balance support of female mid level non instructional staff at community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 37(12), 936–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Judge, T. A., Ilies, R., & Scott, B. A. (2006). work–family conflict and emotions: Effects at work and at home. Personnel Psychology, 59(4), 779–814. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00054.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  74. Kelloway, E. K., Gottlieb, B. H., & Barham, L. (1999). The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: a longitudinal investigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kinnunen, U., Geurts, S., & Mauno, S. (2004). Work-to-family conflict and its relationship with satisfaction and well-being: A one-year longitudinal study on gender difference. Work & Stress, 18(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kopelman, R. E., Greenhaus, J. H., & Connolly, T. F. (1983). A model of work, family, and interrole conflict: A construct validation study. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 32(2), 198–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1999). Bridging the work-family policy and productivity gap: A literature review. Community, Work & Family, 2(1), 7–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kreiner, G. E., Hollensbe, E. C., & Sheep, M. L. (2009). Balancing borders and bridges: Negotiating the work-home interface via boundary work tactics. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 704–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lancaster, L. C., & Stillman, D. (2002). When generations collide. New York, NY: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  80. Latz, A. O., & Rediger, J. N. (2014). Work–life balance among community college faculty members: Generational and life course theory lenses. Community College Journal Of Research & Practice, 38(2/3), 280–285. doi: 10.1080/10668926.2014.851996.
  81. Lawrence, T. B. (2008). Power, institutions, and organizations. In R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, K. Sahlin, & R. Suddaby (Eds.), Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism (pp. 170–197). London, UK: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lester, J. (2015). Cultures of work-life balance in higher education: A case of fragmentation. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 8(3), 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lester, J. (2013). Work-life balance and cultural change: A narrative of eligibility. Review of Higher Education, 36(4), 463–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lester, J., Sallee, M., & Hart, J. (in press). Beyond gendered universities? Implications for research on gender in organizations. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education.Google Scholar
  85. Liu, Y., Wang, M., Chang, C., Shi, J., Zhou, L., & Shao, R. (2015). Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and displaced aggression toward others: The moderating roles of workplace interpersonal conflict and perceived managerial family support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 793–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Long, J. S., & Fox, M. F. (1995). Scientific careers: Universalism and particularism. Annual Review of Sociology, 45–71.Google Scholar
  87. Ludlow, L. H., & Alvarez-Salvat, R. M. (2001). Spillover in the academy: Marriage stability and faculty evaluations. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 15(2), 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lynch, K. D. (2008). Gender roles and the American academe: A case study of graduate student mothers. Gender and Education, 20(6), 585–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. MacKinnon, C. A. (1979). Sexual harassment of working women: A case of sex discrimination (Vol. 19). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Marshall, S. M. (2009). Women higher education administrators with children: Negotiating personal and professional lives. NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, 2(1), 188–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martin, P. Y. (1985). Group sex composition in work organizations: A structural-normative model. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 4(3), 1.Google Scholar
  92. Martinez, E., Ordu, C., Della Sala, M. R., & McFarlane, A. (2013). Striving to obtain a school-work-life balance: The full-time doctoral student. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 8, 39–59.Google Scholar
  93. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper.Google Scholar
  94. Mason, M. A., & Goulden, M. (2002). Do babies matter: The effect of family formation on the lifelong careers of academic men and women. Academe, 88(6), 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mason, M. A., Goulden, M., & Frasch, K. (2009). Why graduate students reject the fast track. Academe, 95(1), 21–27.Google Scholar
  96. Mason, M. A., Goulden, M., & Wolfinger, N. H. (2006). Babies matter: Pushing the equity revolution forward. In S. J. Bracken, J. K. Allen, & D. R. Dean (Eds.), The balancing act: Gendered perspectives in faculty roles and work lives (pp. 9–30). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.Google Scholar
  97. Matthews, R. A., Holliday Wayne, J., & Ford, M. T. (2014). A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: A test of competing theories of longitudinal effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(6), 1173–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McCoy, S. K., Newell, E. E., & Gardner, S. K. (2013). Seeking balance: The importance of environmental conditions in men and women faculty's well-being. Innovative Higher Education, 38(4), 309–322. doi: 10.1007/s10755-012-9242-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Monroe, K., Ozyurt, S., Wrigley, T., & Alexander, A. (2008). Gender equality in academia: Bad news from the trenches, and some possible solutions. Perspectives on Politics, 6(02), 215–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Full-time faculty in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by race/ethnicity, sex, and academic rank: Fall 2009, Fall 2011, and Fall 2013 [Table 315.20]. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  101. National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. (2015). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2015 (Special report NSF 15-311). Arlington, VA. Available at
  102. Near, J. P., & Sorcinelli, M. D. (1986). Work and life away from work: Predictors of faculty satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 25(4), 377–394. doi: 10.1007/BF00992133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work–family conflict and family–work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nippert-Eng, C. (1995). Home and work: Negotiating boundaries through everyday life. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  105. Nobbe, J., & Manning, S. K. (1997). Issues for women in student affairs with children. NASPA Journal, 34(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nohe, C., Meier, L. L., Sonntag, K., & Michel, A. (2015). The chicken or the egg? A meta-analysis of panel studies of the relationship between work-family conflict and strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 522–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Noor, N. M. (2003). Work-and family-related variables, work–family conflict and women's well-being: Some observations. Community, Work & Family, 6(3), 297–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Odle-Dusseau, H. N., Britt, T. W., & Bobko, P. (2012). Work-family balance, well-being, and organizational outcomes: Investigating actual versus desired work/family time discrepancies. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(3), 331–343. doi: 10.1007/s10869-011-9246-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Meara, K. A., & Campbell, C. (2011). Faculty sense of agency in decisions about work and family. Review of Higher Education, 34, 447–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Park, S. M. (1996). Research, teaching, and service: Why shouldn’t women’s work count? The Journal of Higher Education, 67(1), 46–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Perna, L. W. (2001). The relationship between family responsibilities and employment status among college and university faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 72(5), 584–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Philipsen, M. I., & Bostic, T. (2008). Challenges of the faculty career for women: Success and sacrifice. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  113. Pichler, F. (2009). Determinants of work-life balance: Shortcomings in the contemporary measurement of WLB in large-scale surveys. Social Indicators Research, 92(3), 449–469. doi: 10.1007/s11205-008-9297-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pribbenow, C. M., Sheridan, J., Winchell, J., Benting, D., Handelsman, J., & Carnes, M. (2010). The tenure process and extending the tenure clock: The experience of faculty at one university. Higher Education Policy, 23, 17–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Quinn, K. (2010). Tenure clock extension policies: Who uses them and to what effect? NASPA Journal About Women in Higher Education, 3(1), 182–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rani Thanacoody, P., Bartram, T., Barker, M., & Jacobs, K. (2006). Career progression among female academics. Women in Management Review, 21(7), 536–553. doi: 10.1108/09649420610692499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rantanen, M., Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Rantanen, J. (2011). Do individual coping strategies help or harm in the work-family conflict situation? Examining coping as a moderator between work-family conflict and well-being. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(1), 24–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reddick, R. J., Rochlen, A. B., Grasso, J. R., Reilly, E. D., & Spikes, D. D. (2012). Academic fathers pursuing tenure: A qualitative study of work-family conflict, coping strategies, and departmental culture. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 13(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Robertson, A. S., & Weiner, A. (2013). Building community for student-parents and their families: A social justice challenge for higher education. Journal of Academic Perspectives, 2013(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  120. Rothbard, N. P., Phillips, K. W., & Dumas, T. L. (2005). Managing multiple roles: Work-family policies and individuals’ desires for segmentation. Organization Science, 16(3), 243–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sallee, M. W. (2008). Work and family balance: How community college faculty cope. New Directions for Community Colleges, 142, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sallee, M. W. (2012). The ideal worker or the ideal father: Organizational structures and culture in the gendered university. Research in Higher Education, 53(7), 782–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sallee, M. W. (2013). Gender norms and institutional culture: The family-friendly versus the father-friendly university. Journal of Higher Education, 84(3), 363–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sallee, M. W. (2014). Faculty fathers: Toward a new ideal in the research university. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  126. Sallee, M. W. (2015). Adding academics to the work/family puzzle: Graduate student parents in higher education and student affairs. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 52(4), 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sallee, M. W., & Hart, J. L. (2015). Cultural navigators: International faculty fathers in the U.S. research university. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 8(3), 192–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sallee, M. W., & Pascale, A. B. (2012). Multiple roles, multiple burdens: The experiences of female scientists with children. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 18(2), 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sax, L. J., Hagedorn, L. S., Arredondo, M., & Dicrisi III, F. A. (2002). Faculty research productivity: Exploring the role of gender and family-related factors. Research in Higher Education, 43(4), 423–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  131. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  132. Senécal, C., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (2001). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Toward a motivational model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 176–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sheldon, K. M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2006). It’s not just the amount that counts: Balanced need satisfaction also affects well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(2), 331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sorcinelli, M. D., & Near, J. P. (1989). Relations between work and life away from work among university faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 60(1), 59–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stets, J. E., & Burke, P. J. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 224–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Suh, E., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1996). Events and subjective well-being: Only recent events matter. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1091–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Takahashi, A. R. W., Lourenço, M. L., Sander, J. A., & Souza, C. P. D. S. (2014). Competence development and work-family conflict: Professors and gender. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(4), 210–228.Google Scholar
  138. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  139. Thoits, P. A. (1991). On merging identity theory and stress research. Social Psychology Quarterly, 101–112.Google Scholar
  140. Thompson, C. A., Beauvais, L. L., & Lyness, K. S. (1999). When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tosti-Vasey, J. L., & Willis, S. L. (1991). Professional currency among midcareer college faculty: Family and work factors. Research in Higher Education, 32(2), 123–139. doi: 10.1007/BF00974433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Trower, C. A. (2010). A new generation of faculty: Similar core values in a different world. Peer Review, 12(3), 27–30.Google Scholar
  143. Van Daalen, G., Willemsen, T. M., & Sanders, K. (2006). Reducing work–family conflict through different sources of social support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(3), 462–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Voydanoff, P. (2002). Linkages between the work-family interface and work, family, and individual outcomes An integrative model. Journal of Family Issues, 23(1), 138–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wallace, J. E. (2005). Job stress, depression and work-to-family conflict: A test of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 60(3), 510–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2004). Academic motherhood: Managing complex roles in research universities. The Review of Higher Education, 27(2), 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2012). Academic motherhood: How faculty manage work and family. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Ward, K. A., Wolf-Wendel, L. E., & Twombly, S. B. (2007). Faculty life at community colleges: The perspective of women with children. Community College Review, 34(4), 255–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Weedon, C. (1997). Feminist practice and poststructural theory (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  150. Welch, J. L., Wiehe, S. E., Palmer-Smith, V., & Dankoski, M. E. (2011). Flexibility in faculty work-life policies at medical schools in the big ten conference. Journal of Women's Health, 20(5), 725–732. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wiley, M. G. (1991). Gender, work, and stress: The potential impact of role-identity salience and commitment. The Sociological Quarterly, 32(4), 495–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Williams, J. C. (1989). Deconstructing gender. Michigan Law Review, 87(4), 797–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Williams, J. C., Alon, T., & Bornstein, S. (2006). Beyond the ‘chilly climate’: Eliminating bias against women. Thought & Action, 79–96.Google Scholar
  155. Williams, K. J., & Alliger, G. M. (1994). Role stressors, mood spillover, and perceptions of work-family conflict in employed parents. Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 837–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wilson, F. (1997). The construction of paradox?: One case of mature students in higher education. Higher Education Quarterly, 51(4), 347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wolf-Wendel, L. E., & Ward, K. (2006). Faculty life at comprehensive universities: Between a rock and a hard place. Journal of the Professoriate, 1(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  158. Wolf-Wendel, L., & Ward, K. (2015). Academic mothers: Exploring disciplinary perspectives. Innovative Higher Education, 40(1), 19–35. doi: 10.1007/s10755-014-9293-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Woodward, D. (2007). Work-life balancing strategies used by women managers in British “modern” universities. Equal Opportunities International, 26(1), 6–17. doi: 10.1108/02610150710726507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yoest, C. (2004, February). Parental leave in academia. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations