Mobile Ad Hoc Network Reliability: An Imperative Research Challenge

  • Sanjay K. ChaturvediEmail author
  • N. Padmavathy
Part of the Management and Industrial Engineering book series (MINEN)


A rapid development in the areas of sensor and wireless networks has motivated today’s researchers to model and assess the performance of these dynamic networks on various counts resulting into the proliferation of interest and researches in the area of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). MANET is a network that exchanges information among the entities that are potentially mobile without any pre-defined infrastructure based communication support. These networks are of practical importance in applications like environmental monitoring, health care, military, location tracking, disaster recovery and many more. However, the design and analysis of a reliable MANET introduces a formidable challenge since the required knowledge encompasses a whole range of topics viz., network complexity, routing, scalability, heterogeneity, protocol issues, clustering, reliability, bandwidth management, mobility management etc. Therefore, performance modelling and evaluation to ensure their successful deployment and exploitation in practice are becoming quite a formidable task. The contribution towards reliability modelling and its assessment of such systems are still scarce. In this chapter, an extensive study pertaining to the reliability modelling and assessment under no capacity constraints and the effect of propagation models (hybrid model and fading model) on reliability are presented.


Mobile ad hoc network Geometric random graphs Propagation models Monte Carlo simulation Network reliability 


  1. 1.
    Toh C. K., Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Protocols and Systems, Prentice Hall Publications, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Subir K. Sarkar, T. G.Basavaraju, and C. Puttamadappa, “Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications, Auerbach Publications, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xiang Yang Li, “Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Theory and Applications”, Cambridge University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conti M and Silvia G., Multihop Ad Hoc Networking: The Theory, IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 78 - 86, 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Upkar V., Snow A. P. and Malloy AD., Designing Survivable Wireless and Mobile Networks, IEEE Conference on Wireless Communications and Networking, WCNC, Vol. 1, pp. 30 - 34, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frodigh M, Johansson P and Larsson P., Wireless Ad Hoc Networking—The Art of Networking Without a Network, Ericsson Review, Issue 4, pp. 248 - 263, 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Upkar V., Wireless I: Mobile and Wireless Information Systems: Applications, Networks and Research Problems, Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 12, pp. 155 - 166, 2003.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Imrich C, Conti M, Jennifer J and Lic N., Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Imperatives and Challenges, Ad hoc Networks, No. 1, pp. 13 - 16, 2003.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gerla M., From Battlefields to Urban Grids: New Research Challenges in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Pervasive and Mobile Computing, No.1, pp. 77—93, 2005.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sasha D, Shim J. P., Upkar V and Knoerzer G., Evolution and Emerging Issues in Mobile Wireless Networks, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 38 - 43, 2007.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Makki S. K., Li X-Y, Pissinou N, Makki S, Karimi M and Makki K., Sensor and Ad-Hoc Networks: Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects, Springer Publishers, 2008.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Subbarao M. W., Ad Hoc Networking Critical Features and Performance Metrics, NIST Group, pp. 1 - 11, 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fan Bai and Ahmed Helmy, Chapter 1 A Survey of Mobility Models in Wireless Adhoc Networks,
  14. 14.
    Ishibashi B and Boutaba R., Topology and Mobility Considerations in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 762 - 776, 2005.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deo N., Graph Theory with Application to Engineering and Computer Science, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1974.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hsu L-H and Lin C-K., Graph Theory and Interconnection Networks, Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2009.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Erdős P and Rényi A., On the evolution of Random Graphs, Publications of the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 17 - 60, 1960.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dall J and Michael C., Random Geometric Graphs, Physical Review E, 66, 016121, pp. 1 - 9, 2002.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hekmat R and Mieghem PV., Degree Distribution and Hop count in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, In Proceedings of IEEE ICON 2003, 2003.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muthukrishnan S and Gopal P., Thresholding Random Geometric Graph Properties Motivated by Ad Hoc Sensor Networks, International Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 76, pp. 686 - 696, 2010.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hekmat R., Ad-hoc Networks, Fundamental Properties and Network Topologies, 2006.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Afonso Ferreira, “On models and algorithms for dynamic communication networks: the case for evolving graphs”,
  23. 23.
    Matthias W., Modeling the Network Topology, Chapter 22, Modeling and Tools for Network Simulation, Springer Publisher, pp. 471 - 486, 2010.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Francesco De Pellegrini, Daniele Miorandi, Iacopo Carreras, and ImrichChlamtac, “A graph based model for disconnected Ad hoc networks”, INFOCOM 200, 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, IEEE, pp. 373-381, 2007.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dimitar T, Sonja F, Bekim C and Aksenti G., Link Reliability Analysis in Ad Hoc Networks, XII Telekomunikacioni forum TELFOR, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Z. Ye, Srikanth V. K., Satish K. T., A routing framework for providing robustness to node failures in mobile ad hoc networks, Ad Hoc Networks, 2(1) (2004) 87–107.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shastri A, Pallavi K, Shilpi J, Performance analysis of ad hoc network under node failure, International Journal of Computer Technology and Electronics Engineering, 1(2) (2010) 168-175.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tekiner F, Ashish S, Node failures on MANET routing with multimedia traffic, CSNDSP 2010, (2010) pp. 71-76.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shivashankar, Sivakumar B, Varaprasad G, Identification of critical node for efficient performance in MANET, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Application, 3(1) (2012) 166-171.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zadin A, Thomas F, Maintaining path stability with node failure in mobile ad hoc networks, Procedia Computer Science, 19 (2013) 1068-1073.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fei Z, Huang N, Chen J, Impact analysis of communication network reliability based on node failure, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (ISCCCA-13), (2013) pp. 0239-0242.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Merkel, Sanaz M, Hartmut S, Hop count based distance estimation in mobile ad hoc networks – Challenges and consequences, Ad Hoc Networks, 15 (2014) 39–52.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao X, Zhiyang Y, Hai W, A novel two-terminal reliability analysis for MANET, Journal of Applied Mathematics, (2013) 1-10.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Migov DA, Vladimir, Reliability of ad hoc networks with imperfect nodes, Multiple Access Communications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8715, (2014) 49-58.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rappaport T. S and Sandip S., Radio Wave Propagation for Emerging Wireless Personal-Communication Systems, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 14 - 24, 1994.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tam W. K. and Tran V. N., Propagation Modelling for Indoor Wireless Communication, Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, pp. 221 - 228, October 1995.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Juki W. T, Foh C. H, Qiu D. On link reliability in wireless mobile adhoc networks. 64th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference 2006: 1–5.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dong Q and Banerjee S., Minimum Energy Reliable Paths using Unreliable Wireless Links, Proceedings of 6th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, MobiHoc’2005, pp. 449 - 459, 2005.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khandani A. E., Modiano E, Abounadi J and Zheng L., Reliability and Route Diversity in Wireless Networks, Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, pp. 1 - 8, 2005.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Peiravi A and Kheibari HT., Fast Estimation of Network Reliability Using Modified Manhattan Distance, Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 23, pp. 4303 - 4311, 2008.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wei T and Guo W., A Path Reliable Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad hoc Networks, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 203 - 207, 2008.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Khandani A. E, Abounadi J, Modiano E and Zheng L., Reliability and Route Diversity in Wireless networks, IEEE Trans. on Wireless Communications, Vol. 7, No. 12, pp. 4772 - 4776, 2008.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moses E. E. and Isabona J., Probabilistic Link Reliability Model for Wireless Communication Networks, International Journal of Signal System Control and Engineering Application, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 22 - 29, 2009.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhou X, Durrani S and Jones H. M., Connectivity of Ad Hoc Networks: Is Fading Good or Bad?, IEEE, pp. 1 - 5, 2004.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Han S. Y and Abu-Ghazaleh N. B., On the Effect of Fading on Ad-Hoc Networks, arXiv:cs/0504002v1 [cs.NI], pp. 1 - 12, 2005.
  46. 46.
    Xing L, Xu H, Amari SV and Wang W., A New Framework for Complex System Reliability Analysis: Modeling, Verification and Evaluation, pp. 1 - 17,, 2007.
  47. 47.
    Chaturvedi S. K., Network Reliability: Measures and Evaluation, Scrivener Publishing, LLC, 2016.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kubat P., Estimation of Reliability for Communication / Computer Networks –Simulation / Analytic Approach, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 37, No. 9, pp. 927 - 933, 1989.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xio Y-F, Chen S-Z, Li X and Li Y-H., Reliability evaluation of wireless Sensor Networks using an Enhanced OBDD Algorithm, The Journal of China Universities of posts and Telecommunications, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 62 - 70, 2009.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mo Y, Han J, Zhang Z, Pan Z and Zhong F., Approximate Reliability Evaluation of Large-scale Distributed Systems, pp. 1 - 20,
  51. 51.
    Wang C, Xing L, Vokkarane VM and Yan (Lindsay) Sun., Reliability analysis of wireless sensor networks using different network topology characteristics, International Conference on Quality, Reliability, Risk, Maintenance, and Safety Engineering (ICQR2MSE), pp. 12 - 16, 2012.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shrestha A, Xing L and Liu H., Modeling and Evaluating the Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks, In Proceeding of IEEE, pp. 186 - 191, 2007, 04126347.
  53. 53.
    Hallani H and Shahrestani SA., Enhancing the Reliability of Ad-hoc Networks through Fuzzy Trust Evaluation, Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS International Conference on APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE, pp. 93 - 98, 2008.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Golnoosh G, Dana A, Ghalavand A and Rezahosieni M., Reliable Routing Algorithm based on Fuzzy logic for Mobile Ad Hoc Network, 3rd International IEEE Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE), pp. V5-606 - V5-609, 2010.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Su B-L, Wang W-L and Huang Y-M., Fuzzy Logic Weighted Multi-Criteria of Dynamic Route Lifetime for Reliable Multicast Routing in Ad Hoc Networks, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 35, pp. 476 - 484, 2008.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dana A, Ghalavand G, Ghalavand A and Farokhi F., A Reliable Routing Algorithm for Mobile Adhoc Networks based on Fuzzy Logic, International Journal of Compute r Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 3, No. 1, pp. 128 - 133, 2011.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mala C, Sankaran S, Prasad S, Gopalan N and Sivaselvan B., Routing for Wireless Mesh Networks with Multiple Constraints using Fuzzy Logic, The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1 - 8, 2012.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mohan B. V, Kumar B. V. S and Nath J. V., A Reliable Routing Algorithm in MANET Using Fuzzy, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp. 451 - 455, 2012.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lessmann, Janacik P, Lachev L and Orfanus D., Comparative Study of Wireless Network Simulator, IEEE The Seventh International Conference on Networking, pages 517 - 523, 2008.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Upkar V, Snow AP and Malloy AD., Measuring the Reliability and Survivability of Infrastructure-oriented Wireless Networks, Proceedings of 26th Annual IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN 2001, pp. 611 - 618, 2001.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Suh J-J and Han C-M., System Reliability Estimation Using Simulation Combined with Network Reductions, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 1263 - 1267, 1996.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cancela H and Khadiri M El., A Simulation Algorithm for Source - Terminal Communication Network Reliability, Proceedings of Simulation’ 96, pp. 155 - 161, 1996.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wang H and Pham H., Survey of Reliability and Availability Evaluation of Complex Networks using Monte Carlo Technique, Microelectronic Reliability, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 187 - 209, 1997.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Konak A., Combining Network Reductions and Simulation to Estimate Network Reliability, Proceedings of the 2007 Winter Simulation Conference, pp. 2301- 2305, 2007.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cook J. L. and Ramirez-Marquez J. E., Mobility and Reliability Modeling for a Mobile Ad Hoc Network, IIE Transactions, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 23 - 31, 2009.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chaturvedi S. K, Padmavathy N. The influence of scenario metrics on network reliability of mobile ad hoc network. International Journal of Performability Engineering 2013;9(1):61–74.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Padmavathy, N., and S. K. Chaturvedi. Reliability evaluation of capacitated mobile ad hoc network using log-normal shadowing propagation model, International Journal of Reliability and Safety, 2015; 9 (1): 70-89.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    ShawqiKharbash, and Wenye Wang., “Computing Two-Terminal Reliability in Mobile Ad hoc Networks, IEEE Communication Society, pp. 2833-2838, 2007.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brooks R. R, Pillai B, Racunas S and Rai S., Mobile Network Analysis Using Probabilistic Connectivity Matrices, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics – Part C: Applications and Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 694 - 702, 2007.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cook J. L. and Ramirez-Marquez J. E., Two-Terminal Reliability Analyses for a Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 92, pp. 821 - 829, 2007.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Padmavathy N. and S. K. Chaturvedi, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Reliability Measures and Evaluation, LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany, 2016.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Goldsmith A., Path Loss and Shadowing, Chapter 2, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, pp. 24 — 57, 2005.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rappaport T. S., Mobile Radio Propagation: Large Scale Path Loss, Chapter 3, Wireless Communications, Prentice Hall, 2nd Edition, pp. 68 - 138, 2002.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee W. C. Y., Mobile Communications Engineering: Theory and Applications, Second Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishers, 2008.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pahlavan K and Krishnamurthy P., Characteristics of Wireless Medium, Chapter 2, Principles of Wireless Networks – A Unified Approach, Prentice – Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., pp. 39 - 80, 2002.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Padmavathy, N., and S. K. Chaturvedi. Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Reliability using Propagation-based Link Reliability Model. International Journal of Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 2013; 115: 1-9.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Egli J. J., Radio Propagation above 40 MC Over Irregular Terrain, Proceeding of IRE, Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1383 - 1391, 1957.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bettstetter C and Hartmann C., Connectivity of Wireless Multihop Networks in a Shadow fading Environment, Wireless Networks, Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., Vol. 11, pp. 571 - 579, 2005.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zhou X, Durrani S and Jones HM.,Connectivity of Ad Hoc Networks: Is Fading Good or Bad?, IEEE, pp. 1 - 5, 2004.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hekmat R and Mieghem PV., Connectivity in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with a Log-normal Radio Model, Mobile Networks and Applications, Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., Vol. 11, pp. 351 - 360, 2006.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Banerjee S and Arunabha Sen., Impact of Region-Based Faults on the Connectivity of Wireless Networks in Log-Normal Shadow Fading Model, Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2011, IEEE Communications Society, pp. 1 - 6, 2011.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stuedi P and Alonso G., Log-Normal Shadowing meets SINR: A Numerical Study of Capacity in Wireless Networks, Proceedings of IEEE SECON 2007, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 550 - 559, 2007.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stuedi P., From Theory to Practice-Fundamental Properties and Services of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, 2008.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Padmavathy, N., and S. K. Chaturvedi. Reliability Evaluation of Capacitated Mobile Ad Hoc Network using Log-Normal Shadowing Propagation Model, International Journal of Reliability and Safety, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 70-89, 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Reliability Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Dept. of Electronics and Communication EngineeringVishnu Institute of TechnologyBhimavaramIndia

Personalised recommendations