Template Principle in Biology

  • Sergey G. Inge-VechtomovEmail author


N.V. Timofeev-Ressovsky made a decisive contribution to the template principle, offered by his teacher, N.K. Koltsov . Idea of “covariant reduplication” of Timofeev-Ressovsky embraced inheritance and variation in terms of replication of genetic material as a template process. Later on F.Crick included in the template principle processes of genes expression through transcription and translation in his Central Dogma of Molecular Biology . Replication, transcription, translation as the first order template processes (TP I) operating with their universal characteristics (ambiguity and repair , or correction ) should be considered along with the second order template processes (TP II), operating with spatial, or conformational templates . The attention to the former ones had been stimulated at the end of XX century by the study of prions and amyloids . Comparative characteristics of the TP I and TP II and of their interaction are discussed.


Template processes Replication Transcription Translation Ambiguity Correction Repair Prions Amyloids Linear templates Spatial or conformational templates 



I am thanking my colleagues at Dept of Genetics and Biotechnology of St-Petersburg State University and Spb Branch Vavilov Institute of General Genetics RAS: Prof. Mironova L.N., Prof. Sambuk E.V., Dr Stepchenckova E.I., Dr Sopova Ju.V., Dr Nizhnikov A.A., Antonets K.S. and the others, who took part in preparation and in discussion of the paper. The work was supported by: Grant from the President of the Russian Federation for governmental support of leading scientific schools (Grant No. NSH- 5115.2014.4); Federal Target Program “Scientific and scientific-pedagogic cadres of innovation Russia”(2009–2013), Contract 8045; Sankt-Petersburg University Grant No 1.50.2218.2013


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genetics and BiotechnologySt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

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