Advertisement

Organization and Evolution of the Duplicated Flavonoid Biosynthesis Genes in Triticeae

  • Elena KhlestkinaEmail author
  • Olesya Shoeva
Chapter

Abstract

Gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization is of a great evolutionary importance. In plant genomes, duplicated genes may result from either polyploidization (homoeologous genes) or segmental chromosome duplications (paralogous genes). The flavonoid biosynthesis (FB) gene network is known to be a convenient model system for investigation of different issues of plant genetics. In the current study, homoeologous and/or paralogous copies were isolated for a number of FB regulatory and structural genes in polyploid wheat. Duplicated copies of the regulatory Myc gene demonstrated essential structural divergence and tissue-specific transcriptional activity. Among structural genes both similar or divergent homoeological sets were found. Chi homoeologs encode identical enzymes, but have distinct sets of cis-regulatory elements and demonstrate different patterns of expression. Unlike Chi, the F3h homoeologs are similar in both coding and promoter regions. However, there is a highly divergent paralog , F3h-2, in the B, G, S and R genomes of Triticeae species, which has been suggested to acquire a new functional specialization.

Keywords

Duplicated genes Evolution Flavonoid biosynthesis Plant genetics Regulatory genes Structural genes Triticeae Wheat 

References

  1. Appleford NE, Evans DJ, Lenton JR, Gaskin P, Croker SJ, Devos KM, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2006) Function and transcript analysis of gibberellin-biosynthetic enzymes in wheat. Planta 223:568–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bottley A, Xia GM, Koebner RM (2006) Homoeologous gene silencing in hexaploid wheat. Plant J 47:897–906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Comai L, Tyagi AP, Winter K, Holmes-Davis R, Reynolds SH, Stevens Y, Byers B (2000) Phenotypic instability and rapid gene silencing in newly formed arabidopsis allotetraploids. Plant Cell 12:1551–1568CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Dobrovolskaya OB, Arbuzova VS, Lohwasser U, Röder MS, Börner A (2006) Microsatellite mapping of complementary genes for purple grain colour in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 150:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Des Marais DL, Rausher MD (2008) Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. Nature 454:762–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kashkush K, Feldman M, Levy AA (2002) Gene loss, silencing and activation in a newly synthesized wheat allotetraploid. Genetics 160:1651–1659PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Salina EA (2008) Relationship between homoeologous regulatory and structural genes in allopolyploid genome—a case study in bread wheat. BMC Plant Biol 8:88CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Khlestkina EK, Röder MS, Börner A (2010) Mapping genes controlling anthocyanin pigmentation on the glume and pericarp in tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum L.). Euphytica 171:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khlestkina EK, Dobrovolskaya OB, Leonova IN, Salina EA (2013) Diversification of the duplicated F3h genes in Triticeae. J Mol Evol 76:261–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Khlestkina EK, Shoeva OY, Gordeeva EI (2015) Flavonoid biosynthesis genes in wheat. Rus J Genet Appl Res 5:268–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kihara H (1944) Discovery of the DD-analyser, one of the ancestors of Triticum vulgare. Agric Hort (Tokyo) 19:13–14Google Scholar
  12. Kihara H (1954) Origin of wheat. Wheat Inf Serv 1:35–42Google Scholar
  13. Masterson J (1994) Stomatal size in fossil plants: evidence for polyploidy in majority of angiosperms. Science 264:421–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Morimoto R, Kosugi T, Nakamura C, Takumi S (2005) Intragenic diversity and functional conservation of the three homoeologous loci of the KN1-type homeobox gene Wknox1 in common wheat. Plant Mol Biol 57:907–924CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nomura T, Ishihara A, Yanagita RC, Endo TR, Iwamura H (2005) Three genomes differentially contribute to the biosynthesis of benzoxazinones in hexaploid wheat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:16490–16495Google Scholar
  16. Shitsukawa N, Tahira C, Kassai K, Hirabayashi C, Shimizu T, Takumi S, Mochida K, Kawaura K, Ogihara Y, Murai K (2007) Genetic and epigenetic alteration among three homoeologous genes of a class E MADS box gene in hexaploid wheat. Plant Cell 19:1723–1737CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Shoeva OY, Khlestkina EK (2013) F3h gene expression in various organs of wheat. Mol Biol 47:901–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shoeva OY, Gordeeva EI, Khlestkina EK (2014a) The regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in the wheat pericarp. Molecules 19:20266–20279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Shoeva OY, Khlestkina EK, Berges H, Salina EA (2014b) The homoeologous genes encoding chalcone-flavanone isomerase in Triticum aestivum L.: structural characterization and expression in different parts of wheat plant. Gene 538:334–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Wolfe KH (2001) Yesterday’s polyploidization and the mistery of diploidization. Nat Rev Genet 2:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and Genetics SBRASNovosibirkRussia

Personalised recommendations