Opportunities to Promote Primary Prevention of Post Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Respiratory Morbidity in the Premature Infant

  • Cindy T. McEvoyEmail author
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)


It is increasingly recognized that any preterm delivery at <37 weeks gestation can result in altered lung development and adverse respiratory outcomes with potential long-term consequences and premature lung aging over time. Although the extremely preterm infant (<28 weeks,<1000 g) has received intense research focus due to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, lung development is a continuum, and late preterm infants (34°/7–36 6/7 weeks gestation) constitute the majority of all preterm deliveries. Because lung function tracks from infancy through early adulthood along percentiles established very early in life, the prevention of respiratory morbidity in preterm infants depends on perinatal and early life strategies to protect and maximize lung growth and development. Factors adversely affecting lung development can occur before pregnancy through early childhood. This chapter will provide an overview of preconceptual, prenatal, perinatal, and early postnatal factors known to be important in lung development and therefore critical to the prevention of respiratory morbidity in the premature infant, with particular emphasis on the late preterm infant. When available, evidence-based information for primary prevention and public health interventions targeting modifiable factors will be presented, and areas of future research will be summarized.


Prematurity Late preterm Primary prevention Low birth weight Respiratory morbidity Pulmonary function Smoking cessation 


  1. 1.
    Stocks J, Hislop A, Sonnappa S. Early lung development: lifelong effect on respiratory health and disease. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:728–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Colin AA, McEvoy C, Castile RG. Respiratory morbidity and lung function in preterm infants of 32 to 36 weeks’ gestational age. Pediatrics. 2010;126:115–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jaakkola JJ, Ahmed P, Leromnimon A, et al. Preterm delivery and asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:823–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wagijo MA, Sheikh A, Duijts L, Been JV. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2015.
  5. 5.
    McEvoy CT, Jain L, Schmidt B, Abman S, Bancalari E, Aschner JL. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11(Suppl 3):S146–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McEvoy C, Venigalla S, Schilling D, Clay N, Spitale P, Nguyen T. Respiratory function in healthy late preterm infants delivered at 33-36 weeks of gestation. J Pediatr. 2013;162:464–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hibbard JU, Wilkins I, Sun L, et al. Respiratory morbidity in late preterm births. JAMA. 2010;304:419–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vrijlandt EJ, Boezen HM, Gerritsen J, Stremmelaar EF, Duiverman EJ. Respiratory health in prematurely born preschool children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2007;150:256–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vrijlandt EJ, Kerstjens JM, Duiverman EJ, Bos AF, Reijneveld SA. Moderately preterm children have more respiratory problems during their first 5 years of life than children born full term. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:1234–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barker DJ. In utero programming of chronic disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 1998;95:115–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Checkley W, West Jr KP, Wise RA, et al. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and lung function in offspring. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1784–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zosky GR, Hart PH, Whitehouse AJ, et al. Vitamin D deficiency at 16 to 20 weeks’ gestation is associated with impaired lung function and asthma at 6 years of age. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:571–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Turner S, Prabhu N, Danielan P, et al. First- and second-trimester fetal size and asthma outcomes at age 10 years. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184:407–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haberg SE, Stigum H, London SJ, Nystad W, Nafstad P. Maternal obesity in pregnancy and respiratory health in early childhood. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009;23:352–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kumar R, Story RE, Pongracic JA, et al. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and recurrent wheezing in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2010;23:183–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leermakers ET, Sonnenschein-van der Voort AM, Gaillard R, et al. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and preschool wheezing: the Generation R Study. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:1234–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lowe A, Braback L, Ekeus C, Hjern A, Forsberg B. Maternal obesity during pregnancy as a risk for early-life asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:1107–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pike KC, Inskip HM, Robinson SM, et al. The relationship between maternal adiposity and infant weight gain, and childhood wheeze and atopy. Thorax. 2013;68:372–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reichman NE, Nepomnyaschy L. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and diagnosis of asthma in offspring at age 3 years. Matern Child Health J. 2008;12:725–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scholtens S, Wijga AH, Brunekreef B, et al. Maternal overweight before pregnancy and asthma in offspring followed for 8 years. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:606–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    MacDonald KD, Vesco KK, Funk KL, et al. Maternal body mass index before pregnancy is associated with increased bronchodilator dispensing in early childhood: a cross-sectional study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51(8):803–11. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Temel S, van Voorst SF, Jack BW, Denktas S, Steegers EA. Evidence-based preconceptional lifestyle interventions. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36:19–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dietz PM, England LJ, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Tong VT, Farr SL, Callaghan WM. Infant morbidity and mortality attributable to prenatal smoking in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39:45–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salihu HM, Aliyu MH, Pierre-Louis BJ, Alexander GR. Levels of excess infant deaths attributable to maternal smoking during pregnancy in the United States. Matern Child Health J. 2003;7:219–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li YF, Gilliland FD, Berhane K, et al. Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:2097–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ion R, Bernal AL. Smoking and preterm birth. Reprod Sci. 2015;22:918–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hodyl NA, Grzeskowiak LE, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Clifton VL. The impact of aboriginal status, cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes in South Australia. Med J Aust. 2014;201:274–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shah NR, Bracken MB. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between maternal cigarette smoking and preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182:465–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Been JV, Lugtenberg MJ, Smets E, et al. Preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11:e1001596.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Best D. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: technical report – secondhand and prenatal tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e1017–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hayatbakhsh MR, Sadasivam S, Mamun AA, Najman JM, O'callaghan MJ. Maternal smoking during and after pregnancy and lung function in early adulthood: a prospective study. Thorax. 2009;64:810–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Isayama T, Shah PS, Ye XY, et al. Adverse impact of maternal cigarette smoking on preterm infants: a population-based cohort study. Am J Perinatol. 2015;32:1105–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Neuman A, Hohmann C, Orsini N, et al. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:1037–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tager IB, Weiss ST, Munoz A, Rosner B, Speizer FE. Longitudinal study of the effects of maternal smoking on pulmonary function in children. N Engl J Med. 1983;309:699–703.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanrahan JP, Tager IB, Segal MR, et al. The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145:1129–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hoo AF, Henschen M, Dezateux C, Costeloe K, Stocks J. Respiratory function among preterm infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:700–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McEvoy CT, Schilling D, Clay N, et al. Vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smoking women and pulmonary function in their newborn infants: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311:2074–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cunningham J, Dockery DW, Speizer FE. Maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of lung function in children. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:1139–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elliot J, Vullermin P, Robinson P. Maternal cigarette smoking is associated with increased inner airway wall thickness in children who die from sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:802–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sekhon HS, Jia Y, Raab R, et al. Prenatal nicotine increases pulmonary alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression and alters fetal lung development in monkeys. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:637–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sekhon HS, Keller JA, Proskocil BJ, Martin EL, Spindel ER. Maternal nicotine exposure upregulates collagen gene expression in fetal monkey lung. Association with alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;26:31–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sekhon HS, Keller JA, Benowitz NL, Spindel ER. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters pulmonary function in newborn rhesus monkeys. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:989–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wongtrakool C, Roser-Page S, Rivera HN, Roman J. Nicotine alters lung branching morphogenesis through the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L611–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wongtrakool C, Wang N, Hyde DM, Roman J, Spindel ER. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters lung function and airway geometry through alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;46:695–702.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chamberlain C, O'Mara-Eves A, Oliver S, et al. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD001055.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Been JV, Nurmatov UB, Cox B, Nawrot TS, van Schayck CP, Sheikh A. Effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014;383:1549–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cnattingius S, Granath F, Petersson G, Harlow BL. The influence of gestational age and smoking habits on the risk of subsequent preterm deliveries. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:943–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coleman T, Chamberlain C, Davey MA, Cooper SE, Leonardi-Bee J. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD010078.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Vaporizers, e-cigarettes, and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Last edited: 2016-05-09.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Proskocil BJ, Sekhon HS, Clark JA, et al. Vitamin C prevents the effects of prenatal nicotine on pulmonary function in newborn monkeys. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:1032–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bierut LJ. Convergence of genetic findings for nicotine dependence and smoking related diseases with chromosome 15q24-25. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:46–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Abramovici A, Gandley RE, Clifton RG, et al. Prenatal vitamin C and E supplementation in smokers is associated with reduced placental abruption and preterm birth: a secondary analysis. BJOG. 2015;122:1740–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bjerg A, Hedman L, Perzanowski M, Lundback B, Ronmark E. A strong synergism of low birth weight and prenatal smoking on asthma in schoolchildren. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e905–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stieb DM, Chen L, Eshoul M, Judek S. Ambient air pollution, birth weight and preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2012;117:100–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mendola P, Wallace M, Hwang BS, et al. Preterm birth and air pollution: critical windows of exposure for women with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016. pii: S0091-6749(16)00087-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.12.1309.
  56. 56.
    Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Maugeri U, et al. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter on ventilatory lung function of preschool children of non-smoking mothers. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010;24:492–501.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Maugeri U, et al. Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze. Prospective birth cohort study in 4-year olds. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:e723–32.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mortimer K, Neugebauer R, Lurmann F, Alcorn S, Balmes J, Tager I. Air pollution and pulmonary function in asthmatic children: effects of prenatal and lifetime exposures. Epidemiology. 2008;19:550–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mortimer K, Neugebauer R, Lurmann F, Alcorn S, Balmes J, Tager I. Early-lifetime exposure to air pollution and allergic sensitization in children with asthma. J Asthma. 2008;45:874–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Clark NA, Demers PA, Karr CJ, et al. Effect of early life exposure to air pollution on development of childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:284–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Edwards CA, Osman LM, Godden DJ, Campbell DM, Douglas JG. Relationship between birth weight and adult lung function: controlling for maternal factors. Thorax. 2003;58:1061–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Maritz GS, Cock ML, Louey S, Suzuki K, Harding R. Fetal growth restriction has long-term effects on postnatal lung structure in sheep. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:287–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rozance PJ, Seedorf GJ, Brown A, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction decreases pulmonary alveolar and vessel growth and causes pulmonary artery endothelial cell dysfunction in vitro in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L860–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schmouder VM, Prescott GM, Franco A, Fan-Havard P. The rebirth of progesterone in the prevention of preterm labor. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47:527–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Raju TN, Higgins RD, Stark AR, Leveno KJ. Optimizing care and outcome for late-preterm (near-term) infants: a summary of the workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1207–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hamilton BE, Martin JA, Osterman MJ, Curtin SC, Matthews TJ. Births: final data for 2014. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2015;64:1–64.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Ananth CV. Trends in spontaneous and indicated preterm delivery among singleton gestations in the United States, 2005-2012. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124:1069–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Manuck TA, Levy PT, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Jobe AH, Blaisdell CJ. Prenatal and perinatal determinants of lung health and disease in early life: a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170:e154577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ehrenkranz RA, Dusick AM, Vohr BR, Wright LL, Wrage LA, Poole WK. Growth in the neonatal intensive care unit influences neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1253–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Martin CR, Brown YF, Ehrenkranz RA, et al. Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2009;124:649–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tyson JE, Wright LL, Oh W, et al. Vitamin A supplementation for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:1962–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lucas JS, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, et al. Small size at birth and greater postnatal weight gain: relationships to diminished infant lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:534–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e827–41.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sisk PM, Lovelady CA, Dillard RG, Gruber KJ, O'Shea TM. Early human milk feeding is associated with a lower risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. J Perinatol. 2007;27:428–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sano H, Nagai K, Tsutsumi H, Kuroki Y. Lactoferrin and surfactant protein A exhibit distinct binding specificity to F protein and differently modulate respiratory syncytial virus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:2894–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Liu B, Newburg DS. Human milk glycoproteins protect infants against human pathogens. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8:354–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Meier PP, Engstrom JL, Patel AL, Jegier BJ, Bruns NE. Improving the use of human milk during and after the NICU stay. Clin Perinatol. 2010;37:217–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meier PP, Furman LM, Degenhardt M. Increased lactation risk for late preterm infants and mothers: evidence and management strategies to protect breastfeeding. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52:579–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Simoes EA, Carbonell-Estrany X, Fullarton JR, et al. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33-35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP Study. Respir Res. 2008;9:78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Blaymore Bier JA, Oliver T, Ferguson A, Vohr BR. Human milk reduces outpatient upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during their first year of life. J Perinatol. 2002;22:354–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Giwercman C, Halkjaer LB, Jensen SM, Bonnelykke K, Lauritzen L, Bisgaard H. Increased risk of eczema but reduced risk of early wheezy disorder from exclusive breast-feeding in high-risk infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:866–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Blaakman SW, Borrelli B, Wiesenthal EN, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure reduction after NICU discharge: results of a randomized trial. Acad Pediatr. 2015;15:605–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Been JV, Millett C, Lee JT, van Schayck CP, Sheikh A. Smoke-free legislation and childhood hospitalisations for respiratory tract infections. Eur Respir J. 2015;46:697–706.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fedulov AV, Leme A, Yang Z, et al. Pulmonary exposure to particles during pregnancy causes increased neonatal asthma susceptibility. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;38:57–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang L, Pinkerton KE. Air pollutant effects on fetal and early postnatal development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2007;81:144–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fanucchi MV, Plopper CG, Evans MJ, et al. Cyclic exposure to ozone alters distal airway development in infant rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L644–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kajekar R, Pieczarka EM, Smiley-Jewell SM, Schelegle ES, Fanucchi MV, Plopper CG. Early postnatal exposure to allergen and ozone leads to hyperinnervation of the pulmonary epithelium. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;155:55–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Olicker A, Li H, Tatsuoka C, Ross K, Trembath A, Hibbs AM. Have changing palivizumab administration policies led to more respiratory morbidity in infants born at 32–35 weeks? J Pediatr. 2015;171:31–37.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Blanken MO, Rovers MM, Molenaar JM, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1791–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lopez Bernal JA, Upton MN, Henderson AJ, et al. Lower respiratory tract infection in the first year of life is associated with worse lung function in adult life: prospective results from the Barry Caerphilly Growth study. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23:422–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Drysdale SB, Lo J, Prendergast M, et al. Lung function of preterm infants before and after viral infections. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:1497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Drysdale SB, Alcazar M, Wilson T, et al. Respiratory outcome of prematurely born infants following human rhinovirus A and C infections. Eur J Pediatr. 2014;173:913–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Doyle LW, Olinsky A, Faber B, Callanan C. Adverse effects of smoking on respiratory function in young adults born weighing less than 1000 grams. Pediatrics. 2003;112:565–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Upton MN, Smith GD, McConnachie A, Hart CL, Watt GC. Maternal and personal cigarette smoking synergize to increase airflow limitation in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:479–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Martin RJ, Prakash YS, Hibbs AM. Why do former preterm infants wheeze? J Pediatr. 2013;162:443–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brand PL, Caudri D, Eber E, et al. Classification and pharmacological treatment of preschool wheezing: changes since 2008. Eur Respir J. 2014;43:1172–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bush A, Grigg J, Saglani S. Managing wheeze in preschool children. BMJ. 2014;348:g15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stevens TP, Finer NN, Carlo WA, et al. Respiratory outcomes of the surfactant positive pressure and oximetry randomized trial (SUPPORT). J Pediatr. 2014;165:240–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, et al. One-year respiratory outcomes of preterm infants enrolled in the Nitric Oxide (to prevent) Chronic Lung Disease trial. J Pediatr. 2008;153:525–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsOregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations