Office for National Statistics. Preterm births, preterm births data, press release based on 2005 data.2005.Available from:http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-50818.
Islam JY, Keller RJ, Aschner JL, Hartert TV, Moore PE. Understanding the short- and long-term respiratory outcomes of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:134–56.
Poindexter BB, Feng R, Schmidt B, Aschner JL, Ballard RA, Hamvas A, Reynolds AM, Shaw PA, Jobe AH. Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Comparisons and limitations of current definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia for the prematurity and respiratory outcomes program. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015;12:1822–30.
Stocks J, Hislop A, Sonnappa S. Early lung development: lifelong effect on respiratory health and disease. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:728–42.
McGrath-Morrow SA, Ryan T, Rickert K, Lefton-Greif MA, Eakin M, Collaco JM. The impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasiaon caregiver health-related quality of life during the first 2 years of life. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013;48:579–86.
Crump C. Medical history taking in adults should include questions about preterm birth. Br Med J. 2014;349:g4860.
Bolton CE, Bush A, Hurst JR, Kotecha S, McGarvey L, Stocks J, Walshaw MJ. Are early life factors considered when managing respiratory disease?A British Thoracic Society survey of current practice. Thorax. 2012;67:1110.
van Nimwegen FA, Penders J, Stobberingh EE, Postma DS, Koppelman GH, Kerkhof M, Reijmerink NE, Dompeling E, van den Brandt PA, Ferreira I, Mommers M, Thijs C. Mode and place of delivery, gastrointestinal microbiota, and their influence on asthma and atopy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:948–55.
Stick SM, Burton PR, Gurrin L, Sly PD, LeSouëf PN. Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and a family history of asthma on respiratory function in newborn infants. Lancet. 1996;348:1060–4.
Rusconi F, Galassi C, Forastiere F, Bellasio M, De Sario M, Ciccone G, Brunetti L, Chellini E, Corbo G, La Grutta S, Lombardi E, Piffer S, Talassi F, Biggeri A, Pearce N. Maternal complications and procedures in pregnancy and at birth and wheezing phenotypes in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175:16–21.
Shaheen SO, Sterne JAS, Tucker JS, Florey CD. Birth weight, childhood lower respiratory tract infection, and adult lung function. Thorax. 1998;53:549–53.
Svanes C, Sunyer J, Plana E, Dharmage S, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, de Marco R, Norbäck D, Raherison C, Villani S, Wjst M, Svanes K, Antó JM. Early life origins ofchronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2010;65:14–20.
Li J, Yu KH, Oehlert J, Jeliffe-Pawlowski LL, Gould JB, Stevenson DK, Snyder M, Shaw GM, O'Brodovich HM. Exome sequencing of neonatal blood spots and the identification of genes implicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:589–96.
Cookson H, Granell R, Joinson C, Ben-Shlomo Y, Henderson JA. Mothers’ anxiety during pregnancy is associated with asthma in their children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:847–53.
Wright RJ. Epidemiology of stress and asthma: from constricting communities and fragile families to epigenetics. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2011;31:19–39.
Mathilda Chiu YH, Coull BA, Cohen S, Wooley A, Wright RJ. Prenatal and postnatal maternal stress and wheeze in urban children: effect of maternal sensitization. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:147–54.
Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, Walsh MC, Carlo WA, Shankaran S, Lapook AR, et al. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Trends in care practices, morbidity and mortality of extremely preterm neonates, 1993-2012. JAMA. 2015;314:1039–51.
Diaz-Rosello JL, Gisore P, Niermeyer S, Paul VK, Quiroga A, Saugstad OL, Silvestre MA, Singhal N, Sugiura T, Uxa F. Guidelines on basic newborn resuscitation 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.
Gough A, Spence D, Linden M, Hallikday HL, McGarvey LPA. General and respiratory health outcomes in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Chest. 2012;141:1554–67.
Mazloum DEI, Moschino L, Bozzetto S, Baraldi E. Chronic lung disease of prematurity: long-term respiratory outcomes. Neonatology. 2014;105:352–6.
Gibson A-M, Doyle LW. Respiratory outcomes for the tiniest or most immature infants. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014;39:105–11.
Bolton CE, Bush A, Hurst JR, Kotecha S, McGarvey L. Lung consequences in adults born prematurely. Thorax. 2015;70:574–80.
Kotecha SJ, Watkins WJ, Paranjothy S, Dunstan FD, Henderson AJ, Kotecha S. Effect of late preterm birth on longitudinal lung spirometry in school age children and adolescents. Thorax. 2012;67:54–61.
Harju M, Keski-Nisula L, Georgiadis L, Raisanen S, Gissler M, Heinionen S. The burden of childhood asthma and late preterm and early term births. J Pediatr. 2014;164:295–9.
Vogt H, Lindstrom K, Brabak L, Hjern A. Preterm birth and inhaled corticosteroid use in 6-70 19-year-olds: a Swedish national cohort study. Pediatrics. 2011;127:1052–9.
Damgaard AL, Hansen BM, Mathiasen R, Buchvald F, Lange T, Greisen G. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0117253.
Langhoff-Roos J, Kesmodel U, Jacobsson B, Rasmussen S, Vogel I. Spontaneous preterm delivery in primiparous women at low risk in Denmark: population based study. Br Med J. 2006;332:937–9.
Cox B, Martens E, Nemery B, Vangronsveld J, Nawrot TS. Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: analysis of routinely collectedbirthdata. BMJ. 2013;346:f441.
Kotecha SJ, Edwards MO, Watkins WJ, Henderson AJ, Paranjothy S, Dunstan FD, Kotecha S. Effect of preterm birth on later FEV1: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2013;68:760–6.
Pike KC, Lucas JS. Respiratory consequences oflate preterm birth. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2015;16:182–8.
Gough A, Linden M, Spence D, Patterson CC, Halliday HL, McGarvey LPA. Impaired lung function and health status in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Eur Respir J. 2014;43:808–16.
Beaudoin S, Tremblay GM, Croitoru D, Benedetti A, Landry JS. Healthcare utilization and health-related quality of life of adult survivors of preterm birth complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102:607–12.
Landry JS, Tremblay GM, Li PZ, Wong C, Benedetti A, Taivassalo T. Lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults born prematurely: acohort study. Ann Am Thorac Soc2015. [Epub ahead of print]
Crump C, Winkleby MA, Sundquist J, et al. Risk of asthma in young adults who were born preterm: a Swedish national cohort study. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e913–20.
Doyle LW, Faber B, Callanan C, et al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight subjects and lung function in late adolescence. Pediatrics. 2006;118:108–13.
Narang I, Rosenthal M, Cremonesini D, Silverman M, Bush A. Longitudinal evaluation of airway function 21 years after preterm birth. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;178:74–80.
Walter EC, Ehlenbach WJ, Hotchkin DL, Chien JW, Koepsell TD. Low birth weight and respiratory disease in adulthood: a population-based case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:176–80.
Crump C, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA. Gestational age at birth and mortality in young adulthood. JAMA. 2011;306:1233–40.
Agusti A, Bel E, Thomas M, Vogelmeier C, Brusselle G, Holgate S, Humbert M, Jones P, Gibson PG, Vestbo J, Beasley R, Pavord ID. Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases. Eur Respir J. 2016;47(2):410–9.
Roth-Kleiner M, Post M. Similarities and dissimilarities of branching and septation during lungdevelopment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005;40:113–34.
Kho AT, Bhattacharya S, Tantisira KG, Carey VJ, Gaedigk R, Leeder JS, Kohane IS, Weiss ST, Mariani TJ. Transcriptomic analysis of humanlung development. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:54–63.
Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, Baur X, Hall GL, Bruce H, et al., the ERS Global Lung Function Initiative. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3–95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:1324–43.
Morgan WJ, Stern DA, Sherrill DL, Guerra S, Holberg CJ, Guilbert TW, Taussig LM, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Outcome of asthma and wheezing in the first 6 years of life: follow-up through adolescence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172:1253–8.
Sears MR, Greene JM, Willan AR, Wiecek EM, Taylor DR, Flannery EM, Cowan JO, Herbison GP, Silva PA, Poulton R. A longitudinal, population-based, cohort study of childhood asthma followed to adulthood. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1414–22.
Tai A, Tran H, Roberts M, Clarke N, Wilson J, Robertson CF. The association between childhood asthma and adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2014;69:805–10.
Vollsaeter M, Roksund OD, Eide GE, Markestad T, Halvorsen T. Lung function after preterm birth: development from mid-childhood to adulthood. Thorax. 2013;68:767–76.
Bolton CE, Bush A. Coming now to a chest clinic near you. Thorax. 2013;68:707–8.
Brundage KL, Mohsini KG, Froese AB, Fisher JT. Bronchodilatorresponse to ipratropium bromide in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;142:1137–42.
Fawke J, Lum S, Kirkby J, Hennessy E, Marlow N, Rowell V, Thomas S, Stocks J. Lung function and respiratory symptoms at 11 years in children born extremely preterm: the EPICure study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:237–45. Gough A, Linden M, Spence D et al. Impaired lung function and health status in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Eur Respir J.2014;43:808–16.
Tiddens HA, Hofhuis W, Casotti V, Hop WC, Hulsmann AR, de Jongste JC. Airway dimensions in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: implications for airflow obstruction. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:1206–13.
Baraldi E, Bonetto G, Zachello F, Filippone M. Low exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and airflow limitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171:68–72.
Carraro S, Piacentini G, Lusiani M, Uyan ZS, Filippone M, Schiavon M, Boner AL, Baraldi E. Exhaled air temperature in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 2010;45:1240–5.
Chan N, Silverman M. Increased airway responsiveness in children of low birth weight at school age: effect of topical corticosteroids. Arch Dis Child. 1993;69:120–4.
Filippone M, Bonetto G, Corradi M, Frigo AC, Baraldi E. Evidence of unexpected oxidative stress in airways of adolescents born very preterm. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:1253–9.
Carraro S, Giordano G, Pirillo P, Maretti M, Reniero F, Cogo PE, Perilongo G, Stocchero M, Baraldi E. Airway metabolic anomalies in adolescents with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: new insights from the metabolomic approach. J Pediatr. 2015;166:234–9.
Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Davey SG. Association of birth weight with adult lung function: findings from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. Thorax. 2005;60:851–8.
Hancox RJ, Poulton R, Greene JM, McLachlan CR, Pearce MS, Sears MR. Associations between birth weight, early childhood weight gain and adult lung function. Thorax. 2009;64:228–32.
Lucas JS, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Foreman CT, Warner JO, Gregson RK, Clough JB. Small size at birth and greater postnatal weight gain: relationships to diminished infant lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:534–40.
Turner S, Zhang G, Young S, Cox M, Goldblatt J, Landau L, Le Souëf P. Associations between postnatal weight gain, change in postnatal pulmonary function, formula feeding and early asthma. Thorax. 2008;63:234–9.
Suresh S, O'Callaghan M, Sly PD, Mamun AA. Impact of childhood anthropometry trends on adult lung function. Chest. 2015;147:1118–26.
Lin MH, Hsieh CJ, Caffrey JL, et al. Fetal growth, obesity, and atopic disorders in adolescence: a retrospective birth cohort study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2015;29:472–9.
der Voort AM S-v, Arends LR, de Jongste JC, et al. Preterm birth, infantweight gain, and childhoodasthmarisk: ameta-analysisof 147,000 European children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1317–29.
Halvorsen T, Skadberg BT, Eide GE, Røksund OD, Carlsen KH, Bakke P. Pulmonary outcome in adolescents of extreme preterm birth: a regional cohort study. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1294–300.
Saarenpaa H-K, Tikanmaki M, Sipola-Leppanen M, et al. Lung function in very low birth weight adults. Pediatrics. 2015;136:642–50.
Cai Y, Shaheen SO, Hardy R, Kuh D, Hansell AL. Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort. Thorax. 2016;71:916–22.
Brostrom EB, Akre O, Katz-Salamon M, Jaraj D, Kaijser M. Obstructive pulmonary disease in old age among individuals born preterm. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28:79–85.
Baumann S, Godtfredsen NS, Lange P, Pisinger C. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study. Respir Med. 2015;109:1293–9.
Grol MH, Gerritsen J, Vonk JM, Schouten JP, Koëter GH, Rijcken B, Postma DS. Risk factors for growth and decline of lung function in asthmatic individuals up to age 42 years. A 30-year follow-up study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:1830–7.
Grol MH, Postma DS, Vonk JM, Schouten JP, Rijcken B, Koëter GH, Gerritsen J. Risk factors from childhood to adulthood forbronchialresponsiveness at age 32-42 yr. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:150–6.
Bisgaard H, Jensen SM, Bønnelykke K. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:1183–9.
Barker DJP, Godfrey KM, Fall C, Osmond C, Winter PD, Shaheen SO. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMJ. 1991;303:671–5.
Lange P, Celli B, Agustí A, Boje Jensen G, Divo M, Faner R, Guerra S, Marott JL, Martinez FD, Martinez-Camblor P, Meek P, Owen CA, Petersen H, Pinto-Plata V, Schnohr P, Sood A, Soriano JB, Tesfaigzi Y, Vestbo J. Lung-function trajectories leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:111–22.
Postma DS, Brusselle G, Bush A, Holloway JW. I have taken my umbrella, so of course it does not rain. Thorax. 2012;67:88–9.
Strang-Karlsson S, Raikkonen K, Pesonen A-K, et al. Very low birth weightand behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood: the Helsinki study of very-low-birth-weight adults. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1345–53.
Hille ETM, Dorrepaal C, Pirenboom R, Gravenhorst JB, Brand R, Virloove-Vanhorick SP. Social lifestyle, risk-taking behaviour, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. J Pediatr. 2008;152:793–800.
Narayanan M, Beardsmore CS, Owers-Bradley J, Dogaru CM, Mada M, Ball I, Garipov RR, Kuehni CE, Spycher BD, Silverman M. Catch-up alveolarization in ex-preterm children: evidence from (3)He magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:1104–9.
Waters B, Owers-Bradley J, Silverman M. Acinar structure in symptom-free adults by Helium-3 magnetic resonance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:847–51.
Hyde DM, Blozis SA, Avdalovic MV, et al. Alveoli increase in number but not size from birth to adulthood in rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L570–9.
Satrell E, Roksund O, Thorsen E, Halvorsen T. Pulmonary gas transfer in children and adults born extremely preterm. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:1536–44.
Chang DV, Assaf SJ, Tiller CJ, Kisling JA, Tepper RS. Membrane and capillary components of lung diffusion in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193(7):767–71.
Narang I, Bush A, Rosenthal M. Gas transfer and pulmonary blood flow at rest and during exercise in adults, 21 years after preterm birth. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:339–45.
Mitchell SH, Teague WH. Reduced gas transfer at rest and during exercise in school-age survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157:1406–12.
Lovering AT, Laurie SS, Elliott JE, et al. Normal pulmonary gas exchange efficiency and absence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115:1050–6.
Narayanan M. PhD thesis, University of Leicester; 2014.
Maritz GS, Thomas RA. The influence of maternal nicotine exposure on the interalveolar septal status of neonatal rat lung. Cell Biol Int. 1994;18:747–57.
Wilson AC. What does imaging the chest tell us about bronchopulmonary dysplasia? Paediatr Respir Rev. 2010;11:158–61.
Oppenheim C et al. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: value of CT in identifying pulmonary sequelae. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;163:169–72.
Auckland SM et al. High-resolution CT of the chest in children and young adults who were born prematurely: findings in a population based study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:1012–8.
Auckland SM, Rosendahl K, Owens CM, Fosse KR, Eide GE, Halvorsen T. Neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia predicts abnormal pulmonary HRCT scans in long-term survivors of extreme preterm birth. Thorax. 2009;64:505–10.
Wong PM, Lees AN, Louw J, Lee FY, French N, Gain K, Murray CP, Wilson A, Chambers DC. Emphysema in young adult survivors of moderate-to-severebronchopulmonary dysplasia. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:321–8.
Aquino SL, Schechter MS, Chiles C, Ablin DS, Chipps B, Webb WR. High-resolution inspiratory and expiratory CT in older children and adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999;173:963–7.
Mahut B et al. Chest computed tomography findings in bronchopulmonary dysplasia and correlation with lung function. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007;92:F459–64.
Ochiai M et al. A new scoring system for computed tomography of the chest for assessing the clinical status of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2008;152:90–5.
Walkup LL, Tkach JA, Higano NS, Thomen RP, Fain SB, Merhar SL, Fleck RJ, Amin RS, Woods JC. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the neonatal intensive care unit environment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192:1215–22.
Clemm HH, Vollsaeter M, Roksund OD, Eide GE, Markestad T, Halvorsen T. Exercise capacity after extremely preterm birth. Development from adolescence to adulthood. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:537–45.
Clemm H, Roksund O, Thorsen E, Eide GE, Markestad I, Halvorsen T. Aerobic capacity and exercise performance in young people born extremely preterm. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e97–e105.
O’Donnell DE. Adult survivors of preterm birth. What spirometry conceals, exercise tests reveal. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;10:1606–7.
Kjantie E, Strang-Karlsson S, Hovi P, et al. Adults born at very low birth weight exercise less than their peers born at term. J Pediatr. 2010;157:610–6.
Lovering AT, Elliott JE, Laurie SS, et al. Ventilatory and sensory responses in adult survivors of preterm birth and bronchopulmonary dysplasia with reduced exercise capacity. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014;11:1528–37.
Guenette JA, Webb KA, O’Donnell DE. Does dynamic hyperinflation contribute to dyspnoea during exercise in patients with COPD? Eur Respir J. 2012;40:322–9.
Røksund OD, Clemm H, Heimdal JH, Aukland SM, Sandvik L, Markestad T, Halvorsen T. Left vocal cord paralysis after extreme preterm birth, a new clinical scenario in adults. Pediatrics. 2010;126:e1569–77.
Bates ML, Pillers D-AM, Palta M, Farrell ET, Eldridge MW. Ventilatory control in infants, children and adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;189:329–37.
Rosen CL, Larkin EK, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in 8- to 11-year-old children: association with race and prematurity. J Pediatr. 2003;142:383–9.
Sharma PB, Barody F, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in the formerly preterm infant: an overlooked diagnosis. Front Neurol. 2011;2:73.
Hibbs AM, Johnson NL, et al. Prenatal and neonatal risk factors for sleep disordered breathing in school-aged children born preterm. J Pediatr. 2008;153:176–82.
Bates ML, Farrell ET, Eldridge MW. Abnormal ventilatory responses in adults born prematurely. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:584–5.
Vrijlnadt EJLE, Boezen HM, Gerritsen J, Stremmelaar EF, Duiverman EJ. Respiratory health in prematurely born preschool children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2007;150:256–61.
Mourami PM, Ivy DD, Gao D, Abman SH. Pulmonary vascular effects of inhaled nitric oxide nd oxygen tension in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:1006–13.
Sartori C, Allemann Y, Trueb L, Delabays A, Nicod P, Scherrer U. Augmented vasoreactivity in adult life associated with perinatal vascular insult. Lancet. 1999;353:2205–7.
Poon CY, Watkins WJ, Evans CJ, Tsai-Goodman B, Bolton CE, Cockcroft JR, Wise RG, Kotecha S. Pulmonary arterial response to hypoxia in survivors of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016;101(4):F309–13.
Harding RM, Mills FJ. Aviation medicine. 2nded ed. Plymouth: BMA Publications; 1988.
Poon MGS, Edwards MO, Kotecha S. Long term cardiovascular consequences of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013;14:242–9.
Penn AL, Rouse RL, Horohov DW, Kearney MT, Paulsen DB, Lomax L. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke potentiates adult responses to allergen in BALB/c mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:548–55.
Buczynski BW, Yee M, Martin KC, Lawrence BP, O'Reilly MA. Neonatal hyperoxia alters the host response to influenza A virus infection in adult mice through multiple pathways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L282–90.
Bouch S, O'Reilly M, Harding R, Sozo F. Neonatalexposure to mildhyperoxiacauses persistent increases inoxidative stressand immune cells in the lungs of mice without altering lung structure. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L488–96.