Power Usage Efficiency with a Modular Routing Protocol

  • Yoshihiro NozakiEmail author
  • Nirmala Shenoy
  • Aparna Gupta
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 670)


Recent years have seen major efforts to contain the environmental footprint of the Internet. The last decade has witnessed revolutionary research to address some of the challenges faced in the Internet. This article describes an investigative framework for determining the energy savings incurred with new routing protocols and routers. The framework is applied to a real ISP network - the AT&T ISP network in the United States. It describes techniques to collect statistics from such large networks and analyze them. The statistics are then used to study the energy consumption in the ISP network both with routers running the current routing protocol, which is Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and also with routers running the new protocol. The cost models and energy savings studies applied to large ISP networks as presented in this article is the first of its kind. As evidenced from this study significant energy benefits and cost savings thereof can be realized with the proposed modular routing protocol.


Modular routing architecture Framework for energy cost studies Transition costs and benefits Operational complexity 


  1. 1.
    Arkansas Cisco Price List. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  2. 2.
    Emulab Network Emulation Testbed.
  3. 3.
    Internet Research Task Force Routing Research Group. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  4. 4.
    National Science Foundation Future Internet Architecture Project. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  5. 5.
    NSF grants,: #0739362, #1036636, #0832008Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    NSF NeTS FIND Initiative. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  7. 7.
    Quagga Software Routing Suit. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  8. 8.
    The Network of the Future Projects of EU FP7. Accessed 30 Jan 2016
  9. 9.
    Alderson, D., Li, L., Willinger, W., Doyle, J.C.: Understanding Internet topology: principles, models, and validation. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 13(6), 1205–1218 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allman, M., Christensen, K., Nordman, B., Paxson, V.: Enabling an energy-efficient future internet through selectively connected end systems. In: HotNets (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Argyraki, K., Baset, S., Chun, B.G., Fall, K., Iannaccone, G., Knies, A., Kohler, E., Manesh, M., Nedevschi, S., Ratnasamy, S.: Can software routers scale? In: Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Programmable Routers for Extensible Services of Tomorrow, pp. 21–26. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baliga, J., Ayre, R., Hinton, K., Tucker, R.: Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck. In: Photonics in Switching, vol. 2007, pp. 125–126 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bolla, R., Bruschi, R., Carrega, A., Davoli, F., Suino, D., Vassilakis, C., Zafeiropoulos, A.: Cutting the energy bills of Internet service providers and telecoms through power management: an impact analysis. Comput. Netw. 56(10), 2320–2342 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bolla, R., Bruschi, R., Davoli, F., Cucchietti, F.: Energy efficiency in the future Internet: a survey of existing approaches and trends in energy-aware fixed network infrastructures. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 13(2), 223–244 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bolla, R., Bruschi, R., Ranieri, A.: Green support for PC-based software router: performance evaluation and modeling. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2009, pp. 1–6. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ceuppens, L., Sardella, A., Kharitonov, D.: Power saving strategies and technologies in network equipment opportunities and challenges, risk and rewards. In: International Symposium on Applications and the Internet SAINT 2008, pp. 381–384. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chiaraviglio, L., Mellia, M., Neri, F.: Minimizing ISP network energy cost: formulation and solutions. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking (TON) 20(2), 463–476 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cianfrani, A., Eramo, V., Listanti, M., Polverini, M.: An OSPF enhancement for energy saving in IP networks. In: 2011 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), pp. 325–330. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gianoli, L.G.: Models and algorithms for energy saving in IP networks (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gombiner, J.: Carbon footprinting the Internet. Cons.: J. Sustain. Dev. 5(1), 119–124 (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gupta, M., Singh, S.: Greening of the Internet. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp. 19–26. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moy, J.: RFC 1245 OSPF Protocol Analysis. IETF Internet Standard, RFC 1245 (1991)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nedevschi, S., Popa, L., Iannaccone, G., Ratnasamy, S., Wetherall, D.: Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation. In: NSDI, vol. 8, pp. 323–336 (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nozaki, Y., Bakshi, P., Shenoy, N.: A novel approach to interior gateway routing. Int. J. Adv. Netw. Serv. 6(3–4), 208–219 (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nozaki, Y., Bakshi, P., Tuncer, H., Shenoy, N.: Evaluation of tiered routing protocol in floating cloud tiered Internet architecture. Comput. Netw. 63, 33–47 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nozaki, Y., Tuncer, H., Shenoy, N.: A tiered addressing scheme based on a floating cloud internetworking model. In: Yu, H., Vaidya, N.H., Srinivasan, V., Choudhury, R.R., Aguilera, M.K. (eds.) ICDCN 2011. LNCS, vol. 6522, pp. 382–393. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Panigrahy, R., Sharma, S.: Reducing TCAM power consumption and increasing throughput. In: 10th Symposium on High Performance Interconnects, Proceedings, pp. 107–112. IEEE (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Penttinen, A.: Green networking-a literature survey. Technical report. Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Qureshi, A., Weber, R., Balakrishnan, H., Guttag, J., Maggs, B.: Cutting the electric bill for Internet-scale systems. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39(4), 123–134 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ravikumar, V., Mahapatra, R.N.: TCAM architecture for IP lookup using prefix properties. IEEE Micro 24(2), 60–69 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roberts, L.G.: A radical new router. IEEE Spectr. 46(7), 34–39 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Spring, N., Mahajan, R., Wetherall, D., Anderson, T.: Measuring isp topologies with rocketfuel. IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, 12(1), 2–16 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yoo, S.: Energy efficiency in the future Internet: the role of optical packet switching and optical-label switching. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 406–418 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yu, H.: A memory-and time-efficient on-chip TCAM minimizer for IP lookup. In: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE), pp. 926–931. IEEE (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Nozaki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nirmala Shenoy
    • 1
  • Aparna Gupta
    • 2
  1. 1.Rochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

Personalised recommendations