Challenges to the Implementation of Dual Apprenticenships in OECD Countries: A Literature Review
The good economic performance and low levels of youth unemployment in countries with dual vocational education and training (VET) systems have provided good arguments to the advocates of dual apprenticeships as a global role model. Many governments in the Global North have started to show great interest in adopting dual apprenticeships in their own national contexts with the aim of improving the employability of young adults and smoothening transitions from education to work. However, evaluation studies have demonstrated that the transfer of these international good practices to different local contexts is quite problematic, making necessary to understand how different designs of dual apprenticeship programmes interact with the social and economic contexts in which they are implemented, and how social actors react to these interventions. This literature review has systematised international evidence on some of the challenges and dilemmas that governments in OECD countries face when they want to implement large-scale dual apprenticeship programmes. We suggest that the main challenge they face is to make dual apprenticeships attractive to both employers and students. We conclude that the difficulty of reconciling these two goals is one of the main reasons for most of these interventions to remain as small-scale innovations and not reaching the systemic level.
KeywordsLabour Market OECD Country Social Partner Youth Unemployment Apprenticeship Programme
- Arthur, J., Waring, M., Coe, R., & Hedges, L. V. (2012). Research methods and methodologies in education. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Barabasch, A., Huang, S., & Lawson, R. (2009). Planned policy transfer: The impact of the German model on Chinese vocational education. Compare, 39(1), 5–20.Google Scholar
- Brunello, G. (2009). The effect of economic downturns on apprenticeships and initial workplace training: A review of the evidence, Discussion paper series no. 4326. Bonn: IZA.Google Scholar
- Burt, R. S., Cook, K. S., & Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: theory and research. Piscataway: Aldine Transaction.Google Scholar
- Christopoulou, R., & Ryan, P. (2009). Youth outcomes in the labour markets of advanced economies: Decline, deterioration and causes. In I. Schoon & R. Silberstein (Eds.), Transitions from school to work: Globalization, individualization, and patterns of diversity (pp. 67–94). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Culpepper, P. D., & Thelen, K. (2008). Institutions and collective actors in the provision of training: Historical and cross-national comparisons. In K. U. Mayer & H. Solga (Eds.), Skill formation: Interdisciplinary and cross-national perspectives (pp. 21–49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- D’Agostino, S., De Angelis, E., & Deitmer, L. (2010). Italian apprenticeship reform: Impact from national and regional perspectives. In F. Rauner & E. Smith (Eds.), Rediscovering apprenticeship, technical and vocational education and training: Issues, concerns and prospects (pp. 59–73). London/New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Estevez-Abe, M., Iversen, T., & Soskice, D. (2001). Social protection and the formation of skills: A reinterpretation of the welfare states. In P. A. Hall (Ed.), Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Flude, M., & Sieminski, S. (1999). Education, training and the future of work: Developments in Vocational Education and Training. London/New York: The Open University/Routledge.Google Scholar
- Gough, D., Oliver, S., & Thomas, J. (2012). An introduction to systematic reviews. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Granovetter, M. S. (1995). Getting a job: A study of contacts and careers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Hoeckel, K., & Schwartz, R. (2010). OECD reviews of vocational education and training: A learning for jobs review of Germany 2010. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- ILO. (2012). Overview of apprenticeship systems and issues: ILO Contribution to the G20 Task Force on Employment. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---ifp_skills/documents/genericdocument/wcms_190188.pdf. Accessed 20 Jun 2012.
- Maurer, M., & Gonon, P. (Eds.). (2014). The challenges of policy transfer in vocational skills development: National qualifications frameworks and the dual model of vocational training in vocational and continuing education. Bern: Lang.Google Scholar
- Oakley, A. (2012). Foreword. In D. Gough, S. Oliver, & J. Thomas (Eds.), An introduction to systematic reviews (pp. 7–10). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Pawson, R. (2001). Realist synthesis: supplementary reading 5: The promise of realist synthesis. https://www.leeds.ac.uk/realistsynthesis/Supread4.doc. Accessed 17 Jul 2012.
- Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (1997). Realist evaluation. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Räkköläinen, M., & Työssäoppimisen, O. (2001). Guidance of work-related learning. In M. Räkköläinen & I. Uusitalo (Eds.), Työssäoppiminen ja ohjaus ammatillisissa oppilaitoksissa (pp. 103–135). Helsinki: Tammi.Google Scholar
- Soskice, D. (1994). The German training system: Reconciling markets and institutions. In L. Lynch (Ed.), Training and the private sector: international comparisons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Steedman, H. (2010). The state of apprenticeship in 2010: International comparisons. London: Centre for Economic Performance (CEP). http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/special/cepsp22.pdf. Accessed 11 May 2016.
- Tynjälä, P. (2005). Integrative pedagogies: Learning in real life situations. A keynote address presented at ENPHE NUF conference, Enhancing physiotherapy competencies in innovative learning environments. Helsinki, 6–8 Oct 2005.Google Scholar
- Verger, A., Novelli, M., & Altinyelken, H. K. (2012). Global education policy and international development: An introductory framework. In A. Verger, M. Novelli, & H. K. Altinyelken (Eds.), Global education policy and international development: New agendas, issues and policies (pp. 3–32). Huntingdon: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
- Virtanen, A., & Tynjälä, P. (2008). Students’ experiences of workplace learning in Finnish VET. European journal of vocational training, 44(2), 199–213.Google Scholar
- Wolf, A. (2011). Review of vocational education. The Wolf report. London: Department of Education. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180504/DFE-00031-2011.pdf. Accessed 10 Jun 2014.
- Wolter, S. C., & Ryan, P. (2011). Apprenticeship. In E. A. Hanushek, S. Machin, & L. Woessmann (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education (pp. 521–576). Amsterdam: North-Holland.Google Scholar