Genomics Approaches to Biotic Stress Resistance

  • Guoqing LiuEmail author
  • Yucui Han
  • Yanmiao Jiang
  • Yueying Wang
  • Peng Lv
  • Haiquan Li
Part of the Compendium of Plant Genomes book series (CPG)


Sorghum productivity around the world is influenced by a wide array of biotic and abiotic constraints, some of which cause significant economic losses. Great efforts have been made in the past to improve plant resistance to biotic stresses such as insect pests, diseases, and parasitic weeds through breeding and genetic engineering. However, limited success has been achieved owing to the genetic complexity of stress responses. The application of marker-assisted breeding and transgenics will help to address this challenge more effectively. Genomic approaches such as high-throughput sequencing and large-scale genotyping technologies have been used in germplasm diversity analysis, genetic linkage mapping, association studies, and marker-assisted selection to improve sorghum biotic stress resistance. This chapter presents genomics-assisted methods that have helped in understanding diversity in sorghum germplasm resources and resistance against major insect pests, diseases, and parasitic weeds. Furthermore, the chapter deals with the progress in identification and deployment of gene and quantitative trait locus (QTL) for biotic stress resistance.


Biotic stress Genetics Genomics Quantitative trait locus (QTL) 


  1. Agrama H, Widle G, Reese J, Campbell L, Tuinstra M (2002) Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with greenbug resistance and tolerance in Sorghum bicolor. Theor Appl Genet 104(8):1373–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal B, Sharma H, Leuschner K (1987) Registration of ‘ICSV 197’midge resistant sorghum cultivar. Crop Sci 27(6):1312–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal B, Sharma H, Abraham C, Nwanze K, Reddy B, Stenhouse J (1996) Registration of ICS 88019 and ICS 88020 midge-resistant grain sorghum A and B parental lines. Crop Sci 36(3)Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal B, Sharma H, Abraham C, Stenhouse J (2005) Registration of ICSV 88032: a high yielding line resistant to sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola. Int Sorghum Millet Newsl 46:43–46Google Scholar
  5. Andrews DJ, Bramel-Cox PJ, Wilde GE (1993) New sources of resistance to greenbug, biotype I, in sorghum. Crop Sci 33(1):198–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anon (2002) Crop protection compendium, global module. 4th version. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  7. Apotikar D, Venkateswarlu D, Ghorade R, Wadaskar R, Patil J, Kulwal P (2011) Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. J Genet 90(1):59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Araya E (2001) Insects that feed on resistant crops. University of Chile.
  9. Armstrong JS, Rooney WL, Peterson GC, Villenueva RT, Brewer MJ, Sekula-Ortiz D (2015) Sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): host range and sorghum resistance including cross-resistance from greenbug sources. J Econ Entomol 108(2):576–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aruna C, Bhagwat V, Madhusudhana R, Sharma V, Hussain T, Ghorade R, Khandalkar H, Audilakshmi S, Seetharama N (2011) Identification and validation of genomic regions that affect shoot fly resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Theor Appl Genet 122(8):1617–1630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandyopadhyay R, Mughogho L, Prasada Rao K (1988) Sources of resistance to sorghum grain molds. Plant Dis 72(6):504–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergquist R (1974) The determination of physiologic races of sorghum rust in Hawaii. Proc Am Phytopathol Soc 1:67–70Google Scholar
  13. Betsiashvili M, Ahern KR, Jander G (2015) Additive effects of two quantitative trait loci that confer Rhopalosiphum maidis (corn leaf aphid) resistance in maize inbred line Mo17. J Exp Bot 66(2):571–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhatia D, Wing RA, Singh K (2013) Genotyping by sequencing, its implications and benefits. Crop Improv 40(2):101–111Google Scholar
  15. Bock C, Jeger M, Mughoho L, Cardwell K, Adenle V, Mtisi E, Akpa A, Kaula G, Mukasambina D, Blair-Myers C (1998) Occurrence and distribution of Peronosclerospora sorghi [Weston and Uppal (Shaw)] in selected countries of West and Southern Africa. Crop Protec 17(5):427–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonde M, Peterson G (1983) Comparison of host ranges of Peronsclerospora philippinensis and P. sacchari. Phytopathology 73(6):875–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Butler EJ (1907) Some diseases of cereals caused by Sclerospora graminicola. Mem Dept Agric India 2(1):1–24Google Scholar
  18. Chamarthi S, Sharma H, Sahrawat K, Narasu L, Dhillon M (2011) Physico-chemical mechanisms of resistance to shoot fly, Atherigona soccata in sorghum Sorghum bicolor. J Appl Entomol 135(6):446–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coe Jr E, Neuffer M, Hoisington D, Sprague G, Dudley J (1988) The genetics of corn. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. Coleman O, Dean JL (1961) The inheritance of resistance to rust in sorgo. Crop Sci 1(2):152–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Craig J (2000) Sorghum downy mildew. In: Frederiksen RA, Odvody GN (eds). Compendium of sorghum diseases, 2nd ed. American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, USA, pp 25–27Google Scholar
  22. Craig J, Frederiksen R (1980) Pathotypes of Peronosclerospora sorghi. Plant Dis 64(8):778–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Craig J, Frederiksen R (1983) Differential sporulation of pathotypes of Peronosclerospora sorghi on inoculated sorghum. Plant Dis 67(3):278–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Craig J, Odvody G (1992) Current status of sorghum downy mildew control. Sorghum and millet diseases: a second world review Patancheru, Índia: international crops research institute for the semi-arid tropics, Patancheru, India, pp 213–217Google Scholar
  25. Deshpande SP (2005) QTL analysis for shoot fly resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). PhD Dissertation, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. Dhillon M, Sharma H, Singh R, Naresh J (2005) Mechanisms of resistance to shoot fly, Atherigona soccata in sorghum. Euphytica 144(3):301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dixon A, Bramel-Cox P, Harvey T (1990) Diallel analysis of resistance in sorghum to greenbug Biotype E: antibiosis and tolerance. Crop Sci 30(5):1055–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dogramaci M, Mayo Z, Wright R, Reese J (2007) Categories of resistance, antibiosis and tolerance, to biotype I greenbug (Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) Homoptera: Aphididae) in four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Poales: Gramineae) hybrids. J Kansas Entomol Soc 80(3):183–191Google Scholar
  29. Ejeta G (2007) Breeding for resistance in sorghum: exploitation of an intricate host-parasite biology. Crop Sci 47 (Suppl_3):S-216-S-227Google Scholar
  30. Ejeta G, Butler LG (1993) Host plant resistance to Striga. International Crop Science, ICrop Science Society of America, Madison, USA, pp 561–569Google Scholar
  31. Fernandes F, Schaffert R (1983) The reaction of several sorghum cultivars to a new race of sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) in southern Brazil in 1982–1983. In: Agronomy abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Folkertsma R, Sajjanar G, Reddy B, Sharma H, Hash C (2003) Genetic mapping of QTL associated with sorghum shoot fly (Atherigona soccata) resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In: Final abstracts guide, plant and animal genome XI conference, San Diego, CA, USA, P42Google Scholar
  33. Fonseca A, Cruz L, Carvalho C, Souza B (2005) Resistance of sorghum genotypes to the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (FITCH, 1856) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): II. no choice test. Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo 4(3):323–334Google Scholar
  34. Frederiksen RA (1980) Sorghum downy mildew in the United States: overview and outlook. Plant Dis 64(903):8Google Scholar
  35. Frederiksen R (1986) Compendium of sorghum disease. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, p 23Google Scholar
  36. Gahukar R (1993) Infestation levels of improved sorghum cultivars with Rhopalosiphum maidis fitch and Eublemma gayneri Roths. in Senegal. Trop Agric (Trinidad and Tobago) 70:185Google Scholar
  37. Gammar Y, Mohamed A (2013) Introgression of Striga resistance genes into a sudanese sorghum cultivar. Tabat, using marker-assisted selection (MAS). Greener J Agric Sci 3:550–556Google Scholar
  38. Goggin FL (2007) Plant–aphid interactions: molecular and ecological perspectives. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10(4):399–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gowda PB, Frederiksen RA, Magill CW, Xu GW (1995) DNA markers for downy mildew resistance genes in sorghum. Genome 38(4):823–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grenier C, Ibrahim Y, Haussmann BI, Kiambi D, Ejeta G (2007) Marker-assisted selection for Striga resistance in sorghum. In: Ejeta G, Gressel J (eds). Integrating new technologies for Striga control: towards ending the witch-hunt. World Scientific, Singapore, pp 159–172Google Scholar
  41. Halalli M, Gowda B, Kulkarni K, Goud J (1982) Inheritance of resistance to shoot fly (Atherigona soccata Rond.) in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). SABRAO J 14(2):165–170Google Scholar
  42. Harvey T, Kofoid K, Martin T, Sloderbeck P (1991) A new greenbug virulent to E-biotype resistant sorghum. Crop Sci 31(6):1689–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haussmann B, Hess D, Omanya G, Folkertsma R, Reddy B, Kayentao M, Welz H, Geiger H (2004) Genomic regions influencing resistance to the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica in two recombinant inbred populations of sorghum. Theor Appl Genet 109(5):1005–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hemmati F, Abbasi M (2000) Field evaluation of sorghum accessions for resistance to corn leaf aphid in Iran. Int Sorghum Millets Newsl 41:47–49Google Scholar
  45. Huang Y (2006) Evaluating sorghum germplasm for resistance to greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) biotype I. In: Sorghum improvement conference of North America, Lubbock, USA; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang Y (2014) Genetic and genomic studies of host-plant resistance to greenbug in sorghum. In: Plant and animal genome XXII conference, San Diego, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. Isakeit T, Jaster J (2005) Texas has a new pathotype of Peronosclerospora sorghi, the cause of sorghum downy mildew. Plant Dis 89(5):529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Isakeit T, Odvody G, Jahn R, Deconini L (2003) Peronosclerospora sorghi resistant to metalaxyl treatment of sorghum seed in texas. Phytopathology 93:S39Google Scholar
  49. Joel D, Hershenhorn J, Eizenberg H, Aly R, Ejeta G, Rich P, Ransom J, Sauerborn J, Rubiales D (2007) Biology and management of weedy root parasites. Hortic Tural Rev Westport Then New York 33:267Google Scholar
  50. Johnson J, Teetes G, Phillips J, Riggs V (1981) Resistance to biotype E greenbug in sorghum. Sorghum Newsl 24:84Google Scholar
  51. Katsar CS, Paterson AH, Teetes GL, Peterson GC (2002) Molecular analysis of sorghum resistance to the greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 95(2):448–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kiranmayee K, Hash CT, Deshpande SP, Varaprasad K, Kishor P (2015) Biotechnological approaches to evolve sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) for drought stress tolerance and shoot fly resistance. Curr Trends Biotechnol Pharm 9 (3):281–292Google Scholar
  53. Klein R, Rodriguez-Herrera R, Schlueter JA, Klein P, Yu Z, Rooney W (2001) Identification of genomic regions that affect grain-mould incidence and other traits of agronomic importance in sorghum. Theor Appl Genet 102(2–3):307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumar AA, Gorthy S, Sharma HC, Huang Y, Sharma R, Reddy BV (2014) Understanding genetic control of biotic stress resistance in sorghum for applied breeding. In: Wang Y-H, Upadhyaya HD, Kole C (eds) Genetics, genomics and breeding of sorghum. CRC Press, Boca Raton (USA), London (UK), New York (USA), pp 202–203Google Scholar
  55. Li J, Timko MP (2009) Gene-for-gene resistance in Striga-cowpea associations. Science 325(5944):1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Li RG, Han YC, Lu P, Du RH, Liu GQ (2014) Molecular characterization of aphids infesting sorghum in China. Res Crops 15(1):84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lu X, Brewbaker J (1999) Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) clint. Maize Genet Coop Newsl 73:36Google Scholar
  58. Lu Q, Dahlberg JA (2001) Chinese sorghum genetic resources. Econ Bot 55(3):401–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mace E, Tai S, Innes D, Godwin I, Hu W, Campbell B, Gilding E, Cruickshank A, Prentis P, Wang J (2014) The plasticity of NBS resistance genes in sorghum is driven by multiple evolutionary processes. BMC Plant Biol 14(1):253PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Madhusudhana R (2015) Application of DNA markers for genetic improvement In: Madhusudhana R, Rajendrakumar P, Patil J (eds) Sorghum molecular breeding. Springer, India, pp 81–85Google Scholar
  61. Madhusudhana R, Balakrishna D, Rajendrakumar P, Seetharama N, Patil J (2012) Molecular characterization and assessment of genetic diversity of sorghum inbred lines. Afr J Biotechnol 11(90):15626–15635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McIntyre C, Casu R, Drenth J, Knight D, Whan V, Croft B, Jordan D, Manners J (2005) Resistance gene analogues in sugarcane and sorghum and their association with quantitative trait loci for rust resistance. Genome 48(3):391–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mehtre SP (2006) Genetic diversity analysis, QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection for shoot fly resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L,) Moench]. Ph.D dissertation, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  64. Menkir A, Ejeta G, Butler L, Melakeberhan A (1996) Physical and chemical kernel properties associated with resistance to grain mold in sorghum. Cereal Chem 73(5):613–617Google Scholar
  65. Mohamed AH (2002) Identification and characterization of genetic variants in sorghum for specific mechanisms of Striga resistance. PhD thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USAGoogle Scholar
  66. Mohamed A, Ellicott A, Housley T, Ejeta G (2003) Hypersensitive response to infection in. Crop Sci 43(4):1320–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mohamed A, Ali R, Elhassan O, Suliman E, Mugoya C, Masiga CW, Elhusien A, Hash CT (2014) First products of DNA marker-assisted selection in sorghum released for cultivation by farmers in sub-saharan Africa. J Plant Sci Mol Breed 3(1):3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mohan SM, Madhusudhana R, Mathur K, Chakravarthi D, Rathore S, Reddy RN, Satish K, Srinivas G, Mani NS, Seetharama N (2010) Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to foliar diseases in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Euphytica 176(2):199–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nagaraj N, Reese JC, Tuinstra MR, Smith CM, Amand PS, Kirkham M, Kofoid KD, Campbell LR, Wilde GE (2005) Molecular mapping of sorghum genes expressing tolerance to damage by greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 98(2):595–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nair SK, Prasanna B, Rathore R, Setty T, Kumar R, Singh N (2004) Genetic analysis of resistance to sorghum downy mildew and Rajasthan downy mildew in maize (Zea mays L.). Field Crop Res 89(2):379–387Google Scholar
  71. Navi S, Bandyopadhyay R, Hall A, Bramel-Cox P (1999) A pictorial guide for the identification of mold fungi on sorghum grain, vol 59. International Crops Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  72. Ngugi K, Ngugi AJ, Osama S, Mugoya C (2016) Combating Striga weed in sorghum by transferring resistance quantitative trait loci through molecular marker assisted introgression. J Plant Breed Genet 3(3):67–76Google Scholar
  73. Nibouche S, Fartek B, Mississipi S, Delatte H, Reynaud B, Costet L (2014) Low genetic diversity in Melanaphis sacchari aphid populations at the worldwide scale. PLoS One 9(8):e106067PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Odvody G, Frederiksen R (1984) Use of systemic fungicides metalaxyl and fosetyl-Al for control of sorghum downy mildew in corn and sorghum in South Texas. I: seed treatment. Plant Dis 68(7):604–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oh B-J, Frederiksen RA, Magill CW (1996) Identification of RFLP markers linked to a gene for downy mildew resistance (Sdm) in sorghum. Can J Bot 74(2):315–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pande S, Bock C, Bandyopadhyay R, Narayana Y, Reddy B, Lenne J, Jeger M (1997) Downy mildew of sorghum. Information bulletin no. 51, international crops research institute for the semi-arid tropics, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  77. Pathak M, Painter RH (1958) Differential amounts of material taken up by four biotypes of corn leaf aphids from resistant and susceptible sorghums. Ann Entomol Soc Am 51(3):250–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Patil-Kulkarni B, Puttarudrappa A, Kajjari N, Goud J (1972) Breeding for rust resistance in sorghum. Indian Phytopathology 25(1):166–168Google Scholar
  79. Perumal R, Isakeit T, Menz M, Katile S, No EG, Magill CW (2006) Characterization and genetic distance analysis of isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi using AFLP fingerprinting. Mycol Res 110(4):471–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Perumal R, Nimmakayala P, Erattaimuthu SR, Reddy UK, Prom LK, Odvody GN, Luster DG, Magill CW (2008) Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species. BMC Genet 9(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peterson G, Schaefer K, Pendleton B (2009) Registration of 16 sorghum germplasm lines. J Plant Registr 3(2):203–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pieterse A, Pesch C (1983) The witchweeds (Striga spp.)—a review. Abstr Trop. Agric (Netherlands) 9:9–34Google Scholar
  83. Porter K, Peterson G, Vise O (1982) A new greenbug biotype. Crop Sci 22(4):847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Prom L, Montes-Garcia N, Erpelding J, Perumal R, Medina-Ocegueda S (2010) Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA/Reaktion von tschadischen und ugandischen Sorghum-Akzessionen auf natürliche Infektionen mit dem Erreger des Falschen Mehltaus, Peronosclerospora sorghi, in Mexiko und den USA. J Plant Dis Protect 2–8Google Scholar
  85. Prom LK, Perumal R, Montes-Garcia N, Isakeit T, Odvody GN, Rooney WL, Little CR, Magill C (2015) Evaluation of Gambian and Malian sorghum germplasm against downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi, in Mexico and the USA. J Gen Plant Pathol 81(1):24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Punnuri S, Huang Y, Steets J, Wu Y (2013) Developing new markers and QTL mapping for greenbug resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Euphytica 191(2):191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rakshit S, Patil J (2014) Sorghum. In: Chopra V (ed) Breeding field crops II: advances. Studium Press Pvt. Ltd., India, pp 79–96Google Scholar
  88. Rana B, Tripathi D, Rao N (1976) Genetic analysis of some exotic × Indian crosses in sorghum XV. Inheritance of resistance to sorghum rust. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 36(2):244–249Google Scholar
  89. Reddy B, Sharma H, Thakur R, Ramesh S, Kumar A (2007) Characterization of ICRISAT-bred sorghum hybrid parents (set II). Int Sorghum Millets Newsl 48:1–123Google Scholar
  90. Riyazaddin M, Kishor K, Polavarapu B, Ashok Kumar A, Reddy BV, Munghate RS, Sharma HC (2015) Mechanisms and diversity of resistance to sorghum shoot fly Atherigona soccata. Plant Breed 134(4):423–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rosenow D, Odvody G, Frederiksen R, Schaefer K, Collins S, Remmers J, Peterson G, Woodfin C, Rooney W (2014) Registration of Tx3301 through Tx3360 sorghum germplasms with resistance to downy mildew. J Plant Reg 8(1):90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ryley M, Persley D, Jordan D, Henzell R (2002) Status of sorghum and pearl millet diseases in Australia. In: Leslie J (ed) Sorghum and millet diseases. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, USA, pp 441–448Google Scholar
  93. Sajjanar G (2002) Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of components of resistance to shoot fly (Atherigona soccata) in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. PhD Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  94. Santosh D, Abdalla M, Charles Thomas Hash J (2013) Molecular breeding for Striga resistance in sorghum. In: Rajeev V, Roberto T (eds) Translational genomics for crop breeding. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  95. Satish K, Srinivas G, Madhusudhana R, Padmaja P, Reddy RN, Mohan SM, Seetharama N (2009) Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to shoot fly in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Theor Appl Genet 119(8):1425–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Satish K, Gutema Z, Grenier C, Rich PJ, Ejeta G (2012a) Molecular tagging and validation of microsatellite markers linked to the low germination stimulant gene (lgs) for Striga resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Theor Appl Genet 124(6):989–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Satish K, Madhusudhana R, Padmaja P, Seetharama N, Patil J (2012b) Development, genetic mapping of candidate gene-based markers and their significant association with the shoot fly resistance quantitative trait loci in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Mol Breed 30(4):1573–1591Google Scholar
  98. Schuh W, Jeger MJ, Frederiksen RA (1987) The influence of soil temperature, soil moisture, soil texture, and inoculum density on the incidence of sorghum downy mildew. Phytopathology 77(2):125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schuster D, Starks K (1973) Greenbugs: components of host-plant resistance in sorghum. J Econ Entomol 66(5):1131–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharma H, Franzmann B (2001) Host-plant preference and oviposition responses of the sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coquillett)(Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) towards wild relatives of sorghum. J Appl Entomol 125(3):109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sharma H, Vidyasagar P (1994) Antixenosis component of resistance to sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola Coq. in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Ann Appl Biol 124(3):495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sharma H, Vidyasagar P, Subramanian V (1993) Antibiosis component of resistance in sorghum to sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola. Ann Appl Biol 123(3):469–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sharma H, Venkateswarulu G, Sharma A (2003) Environmental factors influence the expression of resistance to sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola. Euphytica 130(3):365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sharma H, Reddy BV, Dhillon M, Venkateswaran K, Singh B, Pampapathy G, Folkertsma R, Hash C, Sharma K (2005) Host plant resistance to insects in sorghum: present status and need for future research. Int Sorghum Millets Newsl 46:36–43Google Scholar
  105. Sharma R, Rao V, Upadhyaya H, Reddy VG, Thakur R (2010) Resistance to grain mold and downy mildew in a mini-core collection of sorghum germplasm. Plant Dis 94(4):439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sharma R, Upadhyaya H, Manjunatha S, Rao V, Thakur R (2012) Resistance to foliar diseases in a mini-core collection of sorghum germplasm. Plant Dis 96(11):1629–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sifuentes J, Frederiksen R (1988) Inheritance of resistance to pathotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Peronosclerospora sorghi in sorghum. Plant Dis 72(4):332–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Singh S, Bandyopadhyay R (2000) Grain mold. In: Frederiksen R, Odvody G (eds) Compendium of sorghum diseases. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp 38–40Google Scholar
  109. Singh S, Grewal R (1999) Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for relative resistance to corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. In: Sorghum improvement conference of North America, Abernathy, USA; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  110. Singh B, Padmaja P, Seetharama N (2004) Biology and management of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Homoptera: Aphididae), in sorghum: a review. Crop Protec 23(9):739–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. So Y-S, Ji HC, Brewbaker JL (2010) Resistance to corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch) in tropical corn (Zea mays L.). Euphytica 172(3):373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Spallek T, Mutuku M, Shirasu K (2013) The genus Striga: a witch profile. Mol Plant Pathol 14(9):861–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Suenaga K, Singh R, Huerta-Espino J, William H (2003) Microsatellite markers for genes Lr34/Yr18 and other quantitative trait loci for leaf rust and stripe rust resistance in bread wheat. Phytopathology 93(7):881–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sukhani T, Jotwani M (1980) Efficacy of some newer systemic insecticides for the control of sorghum shootfly, Atherigona soccata Rondani. Indian J Entomol 42(1):76–81Google Scholar
  115. Tao Y, Jordan D, Henzell R, McIntyre C (1998) Identification of genomic regions for rust resistance in sorghum. Euphytica 103(3):287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tao Y, Hardy A, Drenth J, Henzell R, Franzmann B, Jordan D, Butler D, McIntyre C (2003) Identifications of two different mechanisms for sorghum midge resistance through QTL mapping. Theor Appl Genet 107(1):116–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tarr S (1962) Diseases of sorghum sudan grass and broom corn. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  118. Tarumoto I (2005) Glossiness of leaf blades in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench); its visual and ultrastructural studies. Jpn Agr Res Q 39(3):153–160Google Scholar
  119. Teetes G, Pendleton B (2000) Insect pests of sorghum. In: Smith C, Frederiksen R (eds) Sorghum: origin, history, technology, and production. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, pp 463–466Google Scholar
  120. Teka HB (2014) Advance research on Striga control: a review. Afr J Plant Sci Rep 8(11):492–506Google Scholar
  121. Thakur R, Mathur K (2002) Downy mildews of India. Crop Protec 21(4):333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thakur R, Rao V, Navi SS, Garud T, Agarkar G, Bhat B (2003) Sorghum grain mold: variability in fungal complex. Int Sorghum Millet Newsl 44:104–108Google Scholar
  123. Thakur R, Reddy B, Indira S, Rao V, Navi S, Yang X, Ramesh S (2006) Sorghum grain mold. In: Information bulletin. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, p 32Google Scholar
  124. Thakur R, Reddy BV, Mathur K (2007) Screening techniques for sorghum diseases. In: Information: bulletin No. 76. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  125. Thakur J, Prinja S, Garg CC, Mendis S, Menabde N (2011) Social and economic implications of noncommunicable diseases in India. Indian J Commun Med 36(5):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Timko MP, Huang K, Lis KE (2012) Host resistance and parasite virulence in Striga-host plant interactions: a shifting balance of power. Weed Sci 60(2):307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Upadhyaya HD, Wang Y-H, Sharma R, Sharma S (2013) SNP markers linked to leaf rust and grain mold resistance in sorghum. Mol Breed 32(2):451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van den Berg J (2002) Status of resistance of sorghum hybrids to the aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Plant Soil (South Africa) 19(3):151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wang ML, Dean R, Erpelding J, Pederson G (2006) Molecular genetic evaluation of sorghum germplasm differing in response to fungal diseases: rust (Puccinia purpurea) and anthracnose (Collectotrichum graminicola). Euphytica 148(3):319–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wang F, Zhao S, Han Y, Shao Y, Dong Z, Gao Y, Zhang K, Liu X, Li D, Chang J (2013) Efficient and fine mapping of RMES1 conferring resistance to sorghum aphid Melanaphis sacchari. Mol Breed 31(4):777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wang X, Mace E, Hunt C, Cruickshank A, Henzell R, Parkes H, Jordan D (2014) Two distinct classes of QTL determine rust resistance in sorghum. BMC Plant Biol 14(1):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wei C, Hincapie MA, Larsen N, Nuessly G, Rott PC (2016) First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in the United States. Plant Dis (ja)Google Scholar
  133. White JA, Ryley MJ, George DL, Kong GA, White SC (2012) Yield losses in grain sorghum due to rust infection. Austral Plant Pathol 41(1):85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. White J, Ryley M, George D, Kong G (2015) Identification of pathotypes of the sorghum rust pathogen, Puccinia purpurea, in Australia. Austral Plant Pathol 44(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wu Y, Huang Y (2008) Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) in Sorghum bicolor (Moench). Theor Appl Genet 117(1):117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wu Y, Huang Y, Tauer C, Porter DR (2006) Genetic diversity of sorghum accessions resistant to greenbugs as assessed with AFLP markers. Genome 49(2):143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wu Y, Huang Y, Porter DR, Tauer C, Hollaway L (2007) Identification of a major quantitative trait locus conditioning resistance to greenbug biotype E in sorghum PI 550610 using simple sequence repeat markers. J Econ Entomol 100(5):1672–1678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yohannes T, Tesfamichael A, Kiambi D, Folkertsma R, Hash CT, Ngugi K, Mutitu E, Abraha N, Weldetsion M, Mugoya C (2015) Marker-assisted introgression improves Striga resistance in an eritrean farmer-preferred sorghum variety. Field Crop Res 173:22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yoshida S, Ishida JK, Kamal NM, Ali AM, Namba S, Shirasu K (2010) A full-length enriched cDNA library and expressed sequence tag analysis of the parasitic weed, Striga hermonthica. BMC Plant Biol 10(1):55PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhao B, Lin X, Poland J, Trick H, Leach J, Hulbert S (2005) A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(43):15383–15388PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoqing Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yucui Han
    • 1
  • Yanmiao Jiang
    • 1
  • Yueying Wang
    • 2
  • Peng Lv
    • 1
  • Haiquan Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Millet CropsHebei Academy of Agricultural & Forestry Sciences/Key Laboratory of Minor Crops in HebeiShijiazhuangChina
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesAgricultural University of HebeiBaodingChina

Personalised recommendations