Engineered Nanomaterials: Their Physicochemical Characteristics and How to Measure Them
Numerous types of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are commercially available and developments move towards producing more advanced nanomaterials with tailored properties. Such advanced nanomaterials may include chemically doped or modified derivatives with specific surface chemistries; also called higher generation or multiconstituent nanomaterials. To fully enjoy the benefits of nanomaterials, appropriate characterisation of ENMs is necessary for many aspects of their production, use, testing and reporting to regulatory bodies. This chapter introduces both structural and textural properties of nanomaterials with a focus on demonstrating the information that can be achieved by analysis of primary physicochemical characteristics and how such information is critical to understand or assess the possible toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Many of characterization methods are very specific to obtain particular characteristics and therefore the most widely used techniques are explained and demonstrated.
KeywordsNanomaterials Nanoparticles Nanostructures Physico-Chemical Characterization Properties Microscopy Spectroscopy Specific Surface Area Functionalization
We gratefully acknowledge that this chapter was written with financial support from the EU FP7 project NANoREG (Grant 310584) and the Danish Centre for Nano-Safety funded by the Danish Work Environment Fund (Grant 49803).
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