Inland Tropical Cyclones and the “Brown Ocean” Concept
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In several regions of the world, tropical cyclones have been known to maintain or increase strength after landfall without transitioning to extratropical systems. It is hypothesized that these inland areas help sustain tropical cyclones when there has been plentiful rainfall, leading to unusually wet soil and strong latent heat release. Additionally, given the symmetric structure of warm-core cyclones, the atmosphere should tend toward barotropic conditions that mimic an ocean environment. Observational and modeling studies support this “brown ocean” concept, providing a global climatology of inland tropical cyclones, pinpointing regions that are more favorable for re-intensification, and analyzing individual cyclones to better understand the associated land-atmosphere feedbacks.
KeywordsBrown Ocean Convective available potential energy (CAPE) Extratropical transition HYDRUS model Landfalling hurricanes Latent heat flux (LHF) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Planetary boundary layer (PBL) Radar Saffir-Simpson scale Satellite Soil moisture Tropical cyclone maintenance or intensification (TCMI) Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF)
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