Advertisement

Elder Abuse pp 523-540 | Cite as

RETRACTED CHAPTER: Disrespect: Native American Elder Abuse

  • Jacqueline S. GrayEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Throughout history Native American cultures have valued and honored their elders and elder abuse was an extremely rare occurrence. It occurs much more frequently today because of the impact of Western colonization. However, elder abuse in Native American populations including American Indian tribes, Alaskan villages, and Hawaiian homesteads is more easily identified as disrespect. Among the greatest issues for elder abuse in indigenous communities for legal and policy entities are the issues of cross-jurisdictional questions as to whether the crime is tribal, county or state, or federal for prosecution. However, for the elders themselves, the focus is more on restorative justice and resolving the problems without prosecution of the offender. Few tribes have the elder abuse codes necessary to address the issue. Even less have the resources and services to meet the needs and enforcement of the codes if they exist. The paucity of research provides little insight into the extent of the problem or the effectiveness of programs developed to address the issue. Even where evidence-based practices exist, they have not been tested in Indian Country to see if they work for indigenous communities. This chapter addresses the lack of data on the incidence of elder abuse in indigenous communities, the legal and policy issues, and the practice of preventing and responding to elder abuse issues in our communities. Promising practices in indigenous communities will be described and recommendations are made for the next steps to address this problem among the special populations of the indigenous people of the United States.

Keywords

Elder abuse Native American Indian Promising practices Policy 

References

  1. 1.
    Bureau of Indian Affairs. 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013, from http://www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/index.htm.
  2. 2.
    US Census Bureau. Population: estimates and projections by age, sex, race/ethnicity. 2012. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/cb12-ff22.html
  3. 3.
    Maxwell EK, Maxwell RJ. Insults to the body civil: mistreatment of elderly in two Plains Indian Tribes. J Cross-Cultural Gerontol. 1992;7(1):3–23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thornton R. American Indian holocaust and survival: a population history since 1492. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; 1987.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jennings F. The invasion of America: Indians, colonialism and the cant of conquest. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press; 1975.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). How does an Indian Tribe become “Federally Recognized?”: an overview of the Administrative Process for Federal Recognition. 1994. http://fcnl.org/issues/nativeam/Federal_Tribal_Recognition-Administrative.pdf.
  7. 7.
    BIA. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. 2016; 2016-01769.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Utter J. American Indians: answers to today’s questions. 2nd ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunbar-Ortiz R. An indigenous peoples’ history of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hodgkenson HL. The demographics of American Indians: one percent of the people; fifty percent of the diversity. Washington, D.C: Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc. Center for Demographic Policy. 1990.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bureau of Indian Affairs. Bureau of Indian affairs FAQ. 4/1/2016. http://www.bia.gov/FAQs/.
  12. 12.
    Norris T, Vines PL, Hoeffel EM. The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010. 2012;C2010BR-10.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    U.S. Census Bureau. Annual estimates of the resident population by sex, age, race alone or in combination, and hispanic origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013. 2014. http://www.census.gov/popest/data/counties/asrh/2013/PEPSR5H.html
  14. 14.
    Nerenberg L, Baldridge D, Benson WF. Elder abuse in Indian country: research, policy, and practice. Albuquerque: National Indian Council on Aging; 2004. p. 1–26.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown AS, Fernandez RC, Griffith TM. Service provider perceptions of elder abuse among the Navajo (Research Report RR-90-3). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University Social Research Laboratory; 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nerenberg L, Baldridge D, Benson WF. Preventing and responding to abuse of elders in Indian country. Albuquerque: National Indian Council on Aging; 2004.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ortman JM, Velkoff VA, Hogan H. An aging nation: the older population in the United States. Current Population Reports. 2014; P25-1140.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown AS. A survey on elder abuse at one native American tribe. J Elder Abuse Negl. 1989;1(2):17–38.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buchwald D, Tomita S, Hartman S, Furman R, Dudden M, Manson SM. Physical abuse of urban Native Americans. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15:562–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Walker P, Carter PM, Gray JS, Baker-Demaray TB, Davis J. Elder abuse indicators in Indian country. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association’s 121st Annual Convention, Honolulu. 2013.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    The Three Cycle Comparison of Native American Elder Abuse Indicators. American Psychological Association 2015 Convention Presentation; 2015.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tatara T, Kuzmeskus LB, Duckhorn E, Bivens L, NCEA, APHSA, et al. The national elder abuse incidence study: final report. Washington, DC: DHHS: AOA and ACF. 1998.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Acierno R, Hernandez-Tejado MA, Muzzy W, Steve K. National Elder Mistreatment Study: final report. Washington: USDOJ; 2009.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Acierno R, Hernandez-Tejado MA, Amstadter AB, Resnick HS, Steve K, Muzzy W, et al. Prevalence and correlates of emotional, physical, sexual, and financial abuse and potential neglect in the United States: The National Elder Mistreatment Study. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):292–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jervis LL, Fickenscher A, Beals J. Shielding American Indian Elders Project Team. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures. J Appl Gerontol. 2014;33(3):336–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Jong MG, de Pieters R, de Fox J. Reducing social desirability bias through item randomized response: an application to measure underreported desires. J Mark Res. 2010;47(1):14–27.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baker-Demaray TB. Perceptions of elder abuse among Native American seniors (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Dakota); 2009.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pillemer K. The dangers of dependency: new findings on domestic violence against the elderly. Soc Probl. 1985;33(2):146–58.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jervis LL. Native elder mistreatment. In: Paper presented at the Forum on Global Violence: Elder Abuse and Its Prevention Workshop, Washington, DC. 2014Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rittman M, Kuzmeskus LB, Flum MA. A synthesis of current knowledge on minority elder abuse. In: Tatara T, editor. Understanding elder abuse in minority populations. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel; 1999. p. 221–38.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hudson MF, Armachain WD, Beasley CM, Carlson JR. Elder abuse: two Native American views. Gerontol. 1998; 38(5):538–48.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hudson MF, Carlson JR. Elder abuse: its meaning to Caucasians, African Americans, and Native Americans. In: Tatara T, editor. Understanding elder abuse in minority populations. Ann Arbor: Taylor & Francis; 1999. p. 187–204.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jervis LL, Sconzert-Hall W. Native Elders. American Indians at Risk [2 volumes] 2013. Oct 28, p. 307.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jervis LL, Boland M, Fickenscher A. American Indian family caregivers’ experiences with helping elders. J Cross-Cultural Gerontol. 2010;25(4):355–69.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schweitzer MM. Otoe-Missouria grandmothers: linking past, present, and future. In: Schweitzer MM, editor. American Indian grandmothers: traditions and transitions. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press; 1999. p. 159–80.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jervis LL, Fickenscher A, Beals J, SHIELD. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the native elder life-financial exploitation and -neglect measures. J Appl Gerontol. 2013; 25(4):336–356.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smyer T, Clark MC. A cultural paradox: elder abuse in the native American Community. Home Health Care Manag Pract. 2011;23(3):201–6.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carson DK. American Indian elder abuse. J Elder Abuse Negl. 1995;7(1):17–39.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cole D, Chaikin I. An Iron Hand upon the People: The Law against the Potlatch on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, University of Washington Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dawes HL. Senator Dawes’s Address. Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 1885. Washington, DC: US Gov.: Board of Indian Commissioners. 1886.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Biolsi T. Organizing the Lakota: The Political Economy of the New Deal on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations. Tucson: University of Arizona Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Evans-Campbell T, Lindhorst T, Huang B, Walters KL. Interpersonal violence in the lives of urban American Indian and Alaska Native women: Implications for health, mental health, and help-seeking. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(8):1416–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kaufman and Associates. LTSS Research: Nursing Home Facility Inventory. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 2015 March 16; 2015Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hamilton JW. End-of-life issues for American Indians: a commentary. J Cancer Educ. 2005;20(1):37–40.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hendrix LR. Intercultural collaboration: an approach to long term care for urban American Indians. Care Manag J. 2003;4(1):46–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duran E, Duran B. Native American postcolonial psychology. Albany: State University of New York Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baker-Demaray TB, Gray JS, Carter PM, Davis J, Speaker K, Whitefishwoman, et al. Elder Abuse in Indian Country. LTSS Elder Abuse Webinar, Kaufman and Associates: Spokane, WA 2012.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dumont-Smith C, Aboriginal Healing Foundation. Aboriginal elder abuse in Canada. Ottawa: Aboriginal Healing Foundation; 2002.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crowshoe R, Manneschmidt S. Akak’stiman: a blackfoot framework for decision-making and mediation processes. 2nd ed. Calgary: University of Calgary Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stiegel L. The changing role of the courts in elder-abuse cases. Generations. 2000 Jul 1; 24(2):59–64.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fogarty JD. Older Americans Act of 1965. 1965; PL89-73Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    O’Shaughnessy C. Basics of the Older Americans Act. 2012.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Administration on Aging. Unofficial Compilation of the Older Amerincans Act of 1965 As Amended in 2006 (Public Law 109-365). 2006.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    National Center on Elder Abuse. Paper presented at the Addressing Elder Abuse with American Indian Tribes. A National Teleconference, Web. 1995Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    NARCEA. Paper presented at the American Indians and Elder Abuse: Exploring the Problem. Albuquerque, NM. 1989.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rangel CB. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. 111. 2010; 148.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jones BJ. Role of Indian Tribal Courts in the Justice System. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime; 2000 Mar.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Barker Harrold D. Victim Assistance Training Online Module Tribal Justice System. 02/11/2016; https://www.ovcttac.gov/views/TrainingMaterials/dspOnline_VATOnline.cfm.
  59. 59.
    Law T. Order Act of 2010, Pub.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Berney B. The Violence Against Women Act Reauthorization of 2013: A policy analysis. California state universtity, Long Beach; 2015.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Folsom-Smith C. Enhanced Sentencing in Tribal Courts: Lessons Learned from Tribes. 2015. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=270721
  62. 62.
    Cross JA. A conversation on elder rights. Paper presented at the 2014 National Title VI Training and Technical Assistance Conference, Washington, DC. 2014.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gray JS, Davis J, Carter PM. Elder abuse codes in Indian Country. 2015. https://www.nieji.org/codes.
  64. 64.
    BIA. What we do. Retrieved March 15, 2014, from http://bia.gov/WhatWeDo/index.htm 2014.
  65. 65.
    NIEJI. Elder abuse codes. Retrieved July 14, from University of North Dakota: NIEJI 2014.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jackson MY, Sappier T. Elder abuse issues in Indian Country. Washington, DC. 2005.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP). Society of Indian Psychologists Commentary on The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethnical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Logan, UT: Society of Indian Psychologists; 2013.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jimenez VJ, Song SC. Concurrent tribal and state jurisdiction under public law 280. Am Univ Law Rev. 1998;47:1627–707.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative (NIEJI). Civil Elder Abuse Model Code. 2014.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative (NIEJI). Criminal Elder Abuse Model Code. 2014.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative (NIEJI). Sample Resolution for Adopting Elder Abuse Code. 2014.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Beaulaurier RL, Seff LR, Newman FL, Dunlop B. Internal barriers to help seeking for middle-aged and older women who experience intimate partner violence. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2005;17(3):53–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anisko B. Elder abuse in American Indian communities. Am Indian Cult Res J. 2009;33(3):43–51.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Carson DK, Hand C. Dilemmas surrounding elder abuse and neglect in native american communities. In: Tatara T, editor. Understanding elder abuse in minority populations. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel; 1999. p. 161–86.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Walsh CA, Olson JL, Ploeg J, Lohfeld L, MacMillan HL. Elder abuse and oppression: voices of marginalized elders. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2010;23(1):17–42.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shipler LK, Anand R, Hadi N. Cultural considerations in assisting victims of crime: report on needs and promising practices. National Multicultural Institute, Washington, DC: Department of Justice: Office for Victims of Crime. 1998.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wakeling S, Jorgensen M, Michaelson S, Begay M. Policing on American Indian reservations: a report to the National Institute of Justice. National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC: US Department of Justice: National Crime Justice Reference Service. 2001.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Beaulaurier RL, Seff LR, Newman FL, Dunlop B. External barriers to help seeking for older women who experience intimate partner violence. J Fam Violence. 2007;22(8):747–55.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). Identifying and responding to elder abuse: a bench card for judges. 2008. http://www.eldersandcourts.org/Elder-Abuse/~/media/Microsites/Files/cec/Benchcard.ashx
  80. 80.
    Stiegel L. Legal issues related to elder abuse: a desk guide for law enforcement. 2015. http://www.americanbar.org/groups/law_aging/resources/elder_abuse/legal_issues_related_to_elder_abuse_guides.html
  81. 81.
    Stiegel L. Recommended guidelines for state courts handling cases involving elder abuse. 1995. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/law_aging/2011/2011_aging_ea_rec.authcheckdam.pdf
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
    LeResche D. The reawakening of sacred justice. Clearinghouse Rev. 1993;27(8):893–9.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Blue AW, Blue MAR. The case for aboriginal justice and healing. In: Hadley ML, editor. The spiritual roots of restorative justice. First ed. Albany, NY: State University of New York; 2001. p. 57–79.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Elliott EM. Security, with care: restorative justice and healthy societies. Halifax: Fernwood Pub; 2011.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    National Institute of Justice. Indigenous Justice Systems and Tribal Society. Restorative Justice: Perspectives on Restorative Justice; 2007. http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/perspectives/pages/indigenous-tribal.aspx
  87. 87.
    Hadley ML, editor. The spiritual roots of restorative justice. 1st ed. Albany: State University of New York; 2001.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Umbreit MS. Crime victims seeking fairness, not revenge: towards restorative justice. Federal Probation. 1989;53(3):52–7.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Haslip S. The (Re)Introduction of restorative justice in Kahnawake: “Beyond Indigenization”. Murdoch Univ Electron J Law 2002; 9(1):1–61.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ellis J. First nations justic initiatives in Canada. Totem: the University of Western Ontario. J Anthropol. 2009;17(1):36–42.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wolf RV. Overlap between Public Health and Law Enforcement: Sharing Tools and Data to Foster Healthier Communities. Int Rev Law Comput Technol. 2012;26(1):97–108.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Holkup PA, Salois EM, Tripp-Reimer T, Weinert C. Drawing on wisdom from the past: an elder abuse intervention with tribal communities. Gerontol. 2007;47(2):248–54.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Salois EM, Holkup PA, Tripp-Reimer T, Weinert C. Research as spiritual covenant. West J Nurs Res. 2006;28(5):505–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ramon A. Family preservation services. Elder Abuse Pre-Conference, National Indian Nations Conference, 2014. https://www.nieji.org/pdf/family-preservation-services-presentation-121014.pdf
  95. 95.
    EagleShield J. A Lakota approach to abuse prevention. 2014.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wewa W. Multidisciplinary team approach on elder abuse: confederated tribes of Warm Springs, Oregon. Elder Abuse Pre-Conference, National Indian Nations Conference,  2014. https://www.nieji.org/pdf/multidisciplinary-team-approach-elder-abuse-presentation-121014.pdf
  97. 97.
    U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Adult protective services handbook: a guide to protecting vulnerable adult and elder Indians from abuse, neglect and exploitation. 2013. https://www.nieji.org/resources/files/2013-adult-protective-services-handbook.pdf
  98. 98.
    Allen SK, Longhat M. Community policing and social services: operation golden Shield. 2014. https://www.nieji.org/resources/files/operation-golden-shield.pdf
  99. 99.
    Hollister BA, Estes CL. Local long-term care ombudsman program effectiveness and the measurement of program resources. J Appl Gerontol. 2013;32(6):708–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gray JS. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Ethical Research in Indian Country. 2011. https://ruralhealth.und.edu/pdf/gray_gbu_path_ethical_research_indian_country_nursing.pdf
  101. 101.
    Gray JS. Trails and Traps: The path to research in Indian Country. Presentation to the University of North Dakota Indian Association, Grand Forks, ND 2010.  https://ruralhealth.und.edu/presentations/pdf/041610timeout_gray.pdf
  102. 102.
    Gray JS, Mason G. Suicide in Indian Country: the continuing epidemic. In: D. A. Lamis N. J. Kaslow, editors. Advancing the science of suicidal behavior: Understanding and intervention, Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers; 2015. p. 321–334.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Litton LJ, Ybanez V. Reclaiming what is sacred: addressing harm to indigenous elders and developing a tribal response to abuse in later life. Madison, WI: National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life/End Domestic Abuse Wisconsin; 2015.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gray JS, NIEJI. Elder abuse in Indian Country: disrespect of our elders. Paper presented at the Title VI Administration on Aging Conference, Washington, DC. 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Rural HealthUniversity of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health SciencesGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations