Advertisement

Elder Abuse pp 433-457 | Cite as

Elder Abuse Prevention Interventions

  • Karen SteinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

There are a plethora of prevention intervention strategies and services available to assist in identifying elders at risk for mistreatment, services available for those who are identified as high risk for mistreatment, and far-ranging but uncoordinated universal awareness and education activities and initiatives mostly mounted at local levels. However, we have little or no evidence of the long-term efficacy of the many different strategies and services currently employed to reduce the occurrence or the severity of elder abuse and neglect through prevention interventions. Without a valid body of outcomes-based evidence, informed by well-designed and sound methodological research, we do not know if the investment in our current programs and services has any positive payoffs in terms of improved individual or societal well-being. This chapter sets forth a framework for differentiating elder abuse prevention interventions from treatments, and reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the impacts of universal, selective, and indicated prevention interventions. The chapter answers the following questions: Are elder abuse public awareness and education effective universal prevention strategies? Are screening, continuing education and training effective selective prevention strategies? Are individualized counseling, home visits combined with case management, and multidisciplinary teams effective indicated prevention strategies? Recommendations are presented for building a body of reliable and valid prevention intervention research that emphasizes experimental design, sophisticated data analysis, and rigorous evaluation.

Keywords

Elder abuse prevention Universal elder abuse interventions Selective elder abuse interventions Indicated elder abuse interventions Outcome evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Adams LC. Research ethics. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from ETHICS IN MEDICINE University of Washington School of Medicine. 2014. https://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/resrch.html.
  2. 2.
    Administration for Community Living. (n.d.). Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Services. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://www.aoa.acl.gov/AoA_Programs/HPW/Title_IIID/index.aspx.
  3. 3.
    Advertising Council. Adoption from Foster Care. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from Ad Council. 2015. http://www.adcouncil.org/Impact/Case-Studies/Adoption-from-Foster-Care-2013.
  4. 4.
    Advertising Council. Public Service Advertising that Changed a Nation. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.adcouncil.org/Impact/Research/Public-Service-Advertising-that-Changed-a-Nation.
  5. 5.
    Alon S, Berg-Warman A. Treatment and prevention of elder abuse and neglect: where knowledge and practice meet-a model for intervention to prevent and treat elder Abuse in Israel. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26:150–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alt K, Nguyen A, Meure L. The effectiveness of educational programs to improve recognition and reporting of elder abuse and neglect: a systematic review of the literature. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2011;23(3):213–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anetzberger G. The clinical management of elder abuse. New York, New York: The Haworth Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anetzberger G, Dayton C, Miller C, McGreevey J, Schimer M. Multidisciplinary teams in the clinical management of elder abuse. Clin Gerontol. 2006;28:157–71.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartsch D, Rodgers V, Strong D. Outcomes of senior reach gatekeeper referrals: comparison of the spokane gatekeeper program, colorado senior reach, and mid-kansas senior outreach. Care Manag J. 2013;14(1):11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beach S, Schulz R, Degenholtz H, Castle N, Rosen J, Fox A, et al. Using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing and interactive voice response to measure elder mistreatment in older adults: feasibility and effects on prevalence estimates. J Off Stat. 2010;26(3):507–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhattarai L. Neglect and abuse of older people in nepal: a commentary on a baseline study on reported cases of elder abuse in Nepali Press. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26(3):333–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borrelli B. The assessment, monitoring, and enhancement of treatment fidelity in public health clinical trials. J Public Health Dent. 2011;71:S52–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brossoie N, Roberto K. Community professionals’ response to intimate partner violence against rural older women. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2015;27(4–5):470–88.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brownell P, Heiser D. Psycho-educational support groups for older women victims of family mistreatment. J Gerontol Soc Work. 2006;46(3):145–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brug J. Determinants of health eating: Motiation, abilities and environmental opportunities. Fam Pract. 2008;25:50–5.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burnes D. Novel intervention and presentation strategies presentation, NIH workshop of multiple approaches to understanding and preventing Elder Abuse. Bethesda, MD; 2015.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Campbell Reay A, Browne K. The effectiveness of psychological interventions with individuals who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependents. J Interpers Violence. 2002;17(4):414–31.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caplan G. Principles of prevention psychiatry. Oxford, England: Basic Books; 1969.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choi N, Mayer J. Elder abuse, neglect and exploitation: risk factors and prevention strategies. J Gerontol Soc Work. 2000;33(2):5–25.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Connolly M. Elder self-neglect and the justice system: an essay from an interdisciplinary perspective. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:S244–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Connolly MT. II.2, Seven policy priorities for an enhanced public health response to elder abuse. Elder Abuse and Its Prevention: Workshop Summary. In Forum on Global Violence Prevention; Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Connolly M, Brandl B, Breckman R. The Elder Justice Roadmap. Retrieved July 10, 2015, from USDOJ elder justice and prosecution. 2014. www.justice.gov/elderjustice/research/roadmap.html.
  23. 23.
    Corkrey R, Parkinson L. Interactive voice response: review of studies 1989–2000. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 2002;34(3):342–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dakin E, Pearlmutter P. Older women’s perceptions of elder maltreatment and ethical dilemmas in adult protective services: a cross-cultural, exploratory study. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2009;21(1):15–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Davis R, Medina-Ariza J. Results form an elder abuse prevention experiment in New York city. National Institue of Justice Research Brief; 2001.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development. Neglect, abuse and violence against older women. New York: United Nations; 2013.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deschner R, McNeil J. Results of anger control training for battering couples. J Fam Viol. 1986;1(2):111–20.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dong X. Addressing health and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults through community-based participatory research: introduction to the PINE Study. AIMS Med Sci. 2015;2(3):261–70.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dong X. Elder abuse in chinese populations: a global review. J Abuse Negl. 2015;27(3):196–232.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dong X. Elder abuse: systematic review and implications for practice. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63(6):1214–38.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dong X, Chang E, Wong E, Simon M. Perceived effectiveness of elder abuse interventions in psychological distress and the design of culturally adapted interventions: a qualitative study in the Chinese Community in Chicago. J Aging Res. 2013;845425:8.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dong X, Chang E, Wong E, Wong B, Simon M. How Do U.S. Chinese older adults view elder mistreatment? Findings from a community-based participatory research study. J Aging Health. 2011;23(2):289–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Doyle S. The impact of power differentials on the care experiences of older people. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26:319–32.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doyle J. Prevention and early intervention. Retrieved September 21, 2015, from EMQ Families First. 2006. http://emqff.org/wp-content/uploads/Prevention-and-Early-Intervention-Issue-1-Addendum-03-07-06.pdf.
  35. 35.
    Doyle J. Prevention and early intervention, Issue 1 Addendum: Definitions. Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://emqff.org/wp-content/uploads/Prevention-and-Early-Intervention-Issue-1-Addendum-03-07-06.pdf.
  36. 36.
    Elder JP-M. Interpersonal and print nutrition communication for a Spanish-dominant Latino population: Secretos de la buena vida. Health Psychol. 2005;24:49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Elder investment fraud and financial exploitation prevention program–legal. Bifocal. 2014;35(6):175–176Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Elder Justice Coordinating Committee. The Department of Health and Human Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council 2012–2014 Report to Congress; 2014.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Elder Justice Coordinating Council. Eight Recommendations for Increased Federal Involvement in Addressing Elder Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation. Retrieved September 13, 2015, from Elder Justice Coordinating Council. 2013. http://www.aoa.gov/AoA_programs/Elder_Rights/EJCC/index.aspx.
  40. 40.
    Eulitt P, Tomberg R, Cunningham T, Counselman F, Palmer R. Screening elders in the emergency department at risk for mistreatment: a pilot study. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26(4):424–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Facinetti J. Making strategic commiunications work to prevent elder abuse. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2002;14(4):11–20.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Filinson R, Ingman S. Elder abuse practice and policy. New York: Human Sciences Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Finseraas H, Jakobsson N. Does a simple information intervention change the perception of reform? Appl. Econ. Lett. 2014;21(18):1266–8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fulmer T, Guadagno L, Dyer C, Connolly M. Progress in elder abuse screening and assessment instruments. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:297–304.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gelles R. Novel intervention and presentation strategies presentation, NIH workshop of multiple approaches to understanding and preventing elder abuse. Bethesda, MD; 2015.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gil A, Kislaya I, Santos A, Nunes B, Nicolau R, Fernandes A. Elder abuse in portugal: findings from the first national prevalence study. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2015;27(3):174–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gordon R. An operational classification of disease prevention. In: Steinberg J, Silverman M, editors. Preventing mental disorders. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services; 1987. p. 20–6.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hafford C, Nguyen K, Henning S. New york state office for the aging: enhanced multi-disciplinary teams. Elder Abuse prevention intervention program. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NORC at University of Chicago; 2015.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Harris S, Knight J, Van Hook S, Sherritt L, Brooks T, Kulig J, et al. Adolescent sustance use screening in primary care: validity of computer self-administered versus clinician-administered screening. Substance Abuse; 2015Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hayslip B, Reinberg J, Williams J. The impact of elder abuse education on young adults. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2015;27:233–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Henning S, Hafford C, Nguyen K. Take AIM against elder abuse: the abuse intervention-prevention model. Elder abuse prevention intervention program. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NORC at University of Chicago; 2015.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hernandez-Tejada M, Amstadter A, Muzzy M, Acierno R. National elder mistreatment study: race and ethnicity findings. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2013;25(4):281–93.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Horner S, Rew L, Torres R. Enhancing intervention fidelity: a means of strengthening study impact. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2006;11:80–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Horsford S, Parra-Cordona J, Post L, Schiamberg L. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2010;23(1):75–88.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Huhman M, Potter L, Nolin M, Piesse A, Judkins D, Banspach SW. The influence of the VERB campaign on children’s physical activity in 2002–2006. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(4):638–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Institute for Work and Health. Basic concepts in prevention, surveillance and health promotion. Retrieved July 19, 2015, from AFMC Primer on Population Health. 2009. http://phprimer.afmc.ca/Part1-TheoryThinkingAboutHealth/Chapter4BasicConceptsInPreventionSurveillanceAndHealthPromotion/Thestagesofprevention.
  57. 57.
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. In: Mrazek P, Haggerty RJ, editors. Reducing risks for mental disorders: frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    International Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. 10th WEAAD International Events 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.weaad.com.
  59. 59.
    Kepple N, Freisthler B, Johnson-Motoyama M. Bias in child maltreatment self-reports using interactive voice response. Child Abuse Negl. 2014;38(10):1694–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Khanla Z, Maarefva M, Biglaria A, Heravi-Karimo M. The effect of a family-based intervention with a cognitive-behavioral approach on elder abuse. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2016;28(2):114.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Killick C, Taylor B, Begley E, Anand J, O’Brien M. Older people’s conceptualization of abuse: a systematic review. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2015;27(2):100–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kohn N. Second Childhood: What child protetion systems can teach elder protection systems. Stanford Law Pol Rev. 2003;14:175.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krug E, Dahlberg L, Mercy J, Zwi J, Lozano R. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Heath Organization; 2002.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lau PW. A systematic review of information and communication technology-based interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change in children and adolescents. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(3):e48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee T, Pearson S, Johnson P, Garcia T, Weisberg M, Guadagnoli, et al. Failure of information as an intervention to modify clinical management. A time-series trial in patients with acute chest pain. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(6):434–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    MacMillan H, Wathen C, Jamieson E, Boyle M, McNutt L, Worster A, et al. Approaches to screenings for intimate partner violence in health care settings: a randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;296(5):530–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mariam L, McClure R, Robinson J, Yang J. Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2015;27(1):19–33.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Merriman-Nai S, Stein K. World Elder Abuse awareness day: the concept, the reality, and the promise. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26(3):345–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    MetLife. (n.d.). The MetLife Study of Elder Financial Abuse. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from MetLife: https://www.metlife.com/mmi/research/elder-financial-abuse.html#key%20findings.
  70. 70.
    Moon A, Benton D. Tolerance of elder abuse and attitudes toward third-party intervention among African American, Korean American, and White Elderly. J Multicult Soc Work. 2000;8(3–4):283–303.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mysyuk Y, Westendorp R, Lindenberg J. Older persons’ definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2016;28(2):95–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nahmiash D, Reis M. Most successful intervention strategies for abused older adults. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2001;12(3–4):53–70.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nation M, Crusto C, Wandersman A, Kumpfer K, Seybolt D, Morrissey-Kane E, Davino K. What works in prevention: principles of effective prevention programs. Am Psychol. 2003;58:449–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    National Center on Elder Abuse. The National Policy Summit on Elder Abuse: Creating the Action Agenda-Proceedings. Report submitted to the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services; 2002.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    National Center on Elder Abuse. World Elder Abuse Awareness Day. Retrieved October 2, 2015, from http://www.acl.gov/NewsRoom/Observances/WEAAD/Events/Event-Lookup.aspx.
  76. 76.
    National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults. In: O’Connell M, Boat T, & Warner K, editors. Research advances and promising interventions. Washington: National Academies Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    National Research Council (US) Panel to Review Risk and Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect. Evaluating interventions. In Bonnie R, Wallace R, editors. Elder mistreatment: abuse, neglect, and exploitation in an aging America. Washington: National Academies Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Navarro A, Gassoumis Z, Wilber K. Holding abusers accountable: an elder abuse forensice center increases criminal prosecution of financial exploitation. Gerontologist. 2012;53:303–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nerenberg L, D M, Nava A. In pursuit of a useful framework to champion elder justice. Generations. 2012;36(3):89–96.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nguyen K, Hafford C, Henning S. Elder services case management prevention intervention. Elder Abuse Intervention Program. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NORC at University of Chicago; 2015b.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nguyen K, Hafford C, Henning S. Use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index Screening Tool and Adult Protective Services Specialists in a Clinical Setting. Elder Abuse Prevention Intervention Program. Washington, D.C.: Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: NORC at University of Chicago; 2015a.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nichol M, Wilber K, Wu J, Gassoumis Z. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of the elder abuse forensic center model. U.S. Department of Justice. The National Institute of Justice; 2015.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Noar S. A 10 year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here? J Health Commun. 2006;11:21–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Oveis S, Karimi R, Mahra M. Note from iran: self-reported elder abuse in Qazvin, 2012. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2014;26(3):337–40.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Payne JM, F K. RE-AIM evaluation of the alcohol and pregnancy project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Eval Health Prof. 2011;34:57–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pillemer K, Burnes D, Riffin C, Lachs M. Elder abuse: global situation, risk factors, and prevention strategies. Gerontologist. 2016;56(S2):S194–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pisani L, Walsh C. Screening for elder abuse in hospitalized older adults with dementia. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2012;24(3):195–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ploeg J, Fear J, Hutchison B, MacMilllan H, Bolan G. A systematic review of interventions for elder abuse. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2009;21(3):187–210.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Policastro C, Payne B. Assessing the level of elder abuse knowledge preprofessionals possess: implications for the Further Development of University Curriculum. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2014;26(1):12–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Purtie J, Roman L. Health awareness days: sufficient evidence to support the craze? Am J Public Health. 2015;105(6):1061–5.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Randolf W, Viswanath K. Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world. Annu Rev Public Health. 2004;25:419–37.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rice R, Adkin C. Public communication campaigns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2001.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Richardson B, Kitchen G, Livingston G. The effect of education on knowledge and management of elder abuse: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing. 2002;31:335–41.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rizzo V, Burnes D, Chalfy A. A systematic evaluation of a multidisciplinary social-work-lawyer elder mistreatment intervention model. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2015;27(1):1–18.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Russell S, Fulmer T, Singh G, Valenti M, Vermula R, Strauss S. Screening for elder mistreatment in a dental clinic population. J Elder Abuse Negel. 2012;24:326–39.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sethi D, Wood S, Mitis F, Bellis F, Penhale B, Marmolejo I, et al. European report on preventing elder maltreatment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sirey J, Berman J, Salamore A, DePasquale A, Halkett A, Raeifar E, et al. Feasibility of integrating mental health screening and services into routine elder abuse practice to improve client outcomes. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2015;27(3):254–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Springer F, Phillips J. The IOM model: a tool for prevention planning and implementation. Retrieved June 30, 2015, from Prevention Tactics. 2006. http://www.cars-rp.org/publications/Prevention%20Tactics/PT8.13.06.pdf.
  99. 99.
    Stadler G, Oettingen G, Gollwitzer P. Intervention effects of information and self-regulation on eating fruits and vegetables over two years. Health Psychol. 2010;29(3):274–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stein K. A national agenda for elder abuse and neglect research. J Elder Abuse Negl. 1991;3(3):91–108.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Stein K, Merriman-Nai S, Petrak C. A Strategic Blueprint for Mounting a National Communication Campaign on Elder Abuse. University of Delaware, National Center on Elder Abuse, Report submitted to the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC; 2009.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Stein K. Elder abuse and neglect content in higher education programs on aging. Clearinghouse on abuse and neglect of the Elderly, University of Delaware. Research report submitted to the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington. DC; 1992.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stein K. Elder abuse and neglect: a National Research Agenda. Washington: National Aging Resource Center on Elder Abuse; 1991.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stein K. Private notes, Reingold contract; 2009.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stein K Merriman-Nai S, Brendza G. A report to senior victim services: client satisfaction and outcomes evaluation; 2009.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stein K, Merriman-Nai S, Petrak C, Siegal L. Raising National Public Awareness of Elder abuse: a meta analysis of existing elder abuse public awareness materials, a case study analysis of effective social marketing strategies, and a strategic blueprint for mounting a national communication campaign on elder abuse. National Center on Elder Abuse, Research report submitted to the U.S. Administration on Aging, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC; 2011Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Stein K. Rosalie Wolf Memorial Lecture: a logic model to measure the impacts of World Elder Abuse Awareness Day. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2016;28(3):127–133.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. Risk and protective factors. Retrieved October 21, 2015, from SAMHSA. 2015. http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/practicing-effective-prevention/prevention-behavioral-health/risk-protective-factors.
  109. 109.
    Sugita J, Garrett M. Elder abuse and oral health care providers: an intervention to increase knowledge and self-perceived likelihood to report. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2012;24(1):50–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sweet S, Ginis K, Esterbrooks P, Latimer-Cheung A. Operationalizing the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the impact of multi-sector partnerships. Implement Sci, 9(74); 2014.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Teaster P, Wangmo T. Kentucky’s local elder abuse coordinating councils: a model for other states. J Elder Abuse Negl. 2010;22(1/2):191–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Teaster P, Vorsky F, Wangmo T. The Use of Evidence-Based Practices for Elder Abuse Programs. Report to U.S. Administration on Aging; 2011.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tilden VP, Schmidt TA, Limandri BJ, Chiodo GT, Garland MJ, Loveless PA. Factors that influence clinicians’ assessment and management of family violence. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:628–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tourangeau R, Yan T. Sensitive questions in surveys. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(5):859–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Vega M, Roland E. Social marketing techniques for public health communication: a review of syphilis awareness campaigns in 8 US cities. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:S30–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Virginia Tech. What Is RE-AIM (n.d.). Retrieved 2017, from About RE-AIM: http://www.re-aim.hnfe.vt.edu/about_re-aim/what_is_re-aim/index.html.
  117. 117.
    Vladescu DE. An evaluation of a client centered case management program for elder. J Elder Abuse Negl. 1999;11(4):5–22.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wells Fargo Will Hit The Road To End Elder Financial Abuse. Retrieved October 31, 2015, from Wells Fargo Advisors. 2015. https://www.wellsfargoadvisors.com/about-wells-fargo-advisors/newsroom/2015-elder-financial-abuse.htm.
  119. 119.
    Wolfe D. Elder abuse intervention: lessons from child abuse and domestic violence initiatives. In Bonnie R, Wallace RE, editors. Elder mistreatment: abuse, neglect and exploitation in an aging America. Washington: National Academies Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Yaffe M, Weiss D, Lithwick M. Seniors’ self-administration of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Indix (EASI): a feasibility study. J Abuse Negl Elder. 2012;24(4):277–92.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yan E. Elder abuse in Asia—an overview. In Forum on Global Violence Prevention; Board on Global Health; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. Elder abuse and its prevention: workshop summary. Washington: National Academies Press; 2014, p. II.10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Policy and AdministrationUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations