Enhanced Immunohistopathology

  • Susan A. ElmoreEmail author
Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)


Enhanced histopathology is a tool that the pathologist can use to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the immune system lymphoid organs. It involves the individual evaluation of the various compartments and subcompartments of each lymphoid organ with respect to size, cellularity, and other abnormal cellular changes such as fibrosis and necrosis. It also involves the use of descriptive rather than interpretive terms to describe the cellular and architectural changes. The advantage of such a detailed and comprehensive evaluation is that it allows for an understanding of the changes that can occur with cell production and cell death as well as with cellular trafficking and recirculation following administration of immunomodulatory drugs and chemicals. Moreover, by identifying the specific compartments affected, one might be able to have an early indication of which cell population is affected and also provide clues on the possible mechanism of action of the test article. This methodology is used with short term studies in conjunction with gross changes, body weights, organ weights, clinical chemistry and hematological measurements and may be a part of a larger immunotoxicity protocol that includes traditional immune functional and nonfunctional tests.


Enhanced histopathology Lymphoid organs Immune system Immunomodulation Immunotoxicity Cellular trafficking 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Toxicology ProgramNational Institute of Environmental Health SciencesResearch Triangle ParkUSA

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