Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

  • Todd J. SwickEmail author
  • William G. Ondo


Parkinson’s disease (PD) has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad non-motor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), are estimated to occur in 60–98 % of patients with PD. For years, non-motor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity, quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques and treatment options for sleep disorders encountered with PD are presented.


Non-motor Pathophysiology Synuclein Sleep disorders Dopamine 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas School of Medicine-HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Apnix Sleep Disorders CentersHoustonUSA
  3. 3.The Sleep Center at North Cypress Medical CenterCypressUSA
  4. 4.Methodist Neurological InstituteHoustonUSA

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