Outline of an Arctic fjord Ecosystem Model for Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden, Svalbard

  • Pedro DuarteEmail author
  • Jan Marcin Weslawski
  • Haakon Hop
Part of the Advances in Polar Ecology book series (AVPE, volume 2)


The main objective of this work is to present a detailed outline of an Arctic fjord ecosystem model using Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden as a case study. Marine ecosystem models are compared, with emphasis on fjord models, towards defining best available modelling technologies. This comparison is based on an analysis of the differences in the variables and processes simulated by different models. We argue about the importance of: (i) coupling Arctic fjord models with land and glacier drainage models; (ii) including thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and ice dynamic sub-models; (iii) simulating biogeochemical processes in the water, ice and benthic environments for, at least, the macro-elements carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Furthermore, the energetic importance of higher trophic levels is discussed and used as an argument for their inclusion in fjord ecosystem models towards the development of end-to-end models. The complexity of all the processes mentioned above and respective interactions emphasizes the need for using different model tools and efficient couplers allowing the flow of data between them. A community-based approach with open source software seems to be the proper approach to handle the large complexity of the model strategy proposed herein.


Arctic fjords Ecosystem models Model coupling End-to-end models 



JMW was supported by the project GAME Polish National Science Center no. DEC-2012/04/A/NZ8/00661.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Duarte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Marcin Weslawski
    • 2
  • Haakon Hop
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram CentreTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Department of Marine EcologyInstitute of Oceanology PASSopotPoland
  3. 3.Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and EconomicsUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

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