Ecological Drivers of and Responses by Arctic Benthic Communities, with an Emphasis on Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

  • Markus MolisEmail author
  • Frank Beuchel
  • Jürgen Laudien
  • Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk
  • Christian Buschbaum
Part of the Advances in Polar Ecology book series (AVPE, volume 2)


Knowledge on the causes and consequences that structure benthic communities is essential to understand and conserve Arctic ecosystems. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on species interactions and community traits, i.e. diversity, structure, and functioning of Arctic coastal hard- and soft-bottom habitats, with emphasis on Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). Current evidence indicates that descriptive and mensurative studies on the distribution of species prevail and few studies allow inferences on the underlying processes generating observed patterns. Furthermore, Arctic hard- and soft-bottom communities show some fundamental differences in their ecology. The recovery in hard-bottom communities from disturbance, for instance, takes exceptionally long (i.e. > decadal) due to slow growth and/or sporadic recruitment, while it is considerably shorter in soft-bottom communities. Also, Arctic hard-bottom communities display strong competitive hierarchies that appear negligible in communities populating sedimentary shores. This review concludes with a suggestion to shift the focus in Arctic benthos research from pattern to processes and the identification of major research gaps. These include (i) the apparent demarcation of studies being devoted to either rocky or to sedimentary shores, which hamper studies on habitat connectivity, (ii) the lack of studies addressing the effects of pathogens and diseases on community ecology, and (iii) the incomplete assessment of potentially significant drivers of community ecology, such as trophic interactions, recruitment success, and competition.


Arctic ecosystems Biotic interactions Climate change Disturbance Polar biota Rocky habitats Sedimentary habitats Succession 



We are grateful to Tobias Dolch who kindly supplied maps displayed in Fig. 11.1. We thank one anonymous reviewer, H.M. Feder, and H. Hop for their constructive comments, which greatly improved the quality of this review. MWK was supported by the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 in the frame of Project Contract No Pol-Nor/201992/93/2014 (DWARF) and by the National Science Centre grant based on a decision No DEC-2012/05/B/NZ8/02654 (BIOSIZE).


  1. Altizer S, Ostfeld RS, Johnson PTJ, Kutz S, Harvell CD (2013) Climate change and infectious diseases: from evidence to a predictive framework. Science 341:514–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvsvåg J, Agnalt AL, Jørstad KE (2009) Evidence for a permanent establishment of the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in the Barents Sea. Biol Invasions 11:587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrose WG Jr (1984) Role of predatory infauna in structuring marine soft-bottom communities. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 17:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose WG Jr, Renaud PE, Locke WL, Cottier FR, Berge J, Carroll ML, Levin B, Ryan S (2012) Growth line deposition and variability in growth of two circumpolar bivalves (Serripes groenlandicus, and Clinocardium ciliatum). Polar Biol 35:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amsler CD, Iken K, McClintock JB, Baker BJ (2009) Defenses of polar macroalgae against herbivores and biofoulers. Bot Mar 52:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong T, Roberts B, Swithinbank C (1966) Illustrated glossary of snow and ice. Scottish Polar Research Institute, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Aumack CF, Dunton KH, Burd AB, Funk DW, Maffione RA (2007) Linking light attenuation and suspended sediment loading to benthic productivity within an Arctic kelp-bed community. J Phycol 43:853–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes DKA (1999) The influence of ice on polar nearshore benthos. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 79:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes DKA (2000) Diversity, recruitment and competition on island shores at south-polar localities compared with lower latitudes: encrusting community examples. Hydrobiologia 440:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes DKA, Conlan KE (2007) Disturbance, colonization and development of Antarctic benthic communities. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci 362:11–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnes DKA, Kukliński P (2003) High polar spatial competition: extreme hierarchies at extreme latitude. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 259:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes DKA, Kukliński P (2004a) Scale-dependent variation in competitive ability among encrusting arctic species. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 275:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnes DKA, Kukliński P (2004b) Variability of competition at scales of 101, 103, 105, and 106 m: encrusting arctic community patterns. Mar Biol 145:361–372Google Scholar
  14. Barnes DKA, Kukliński P (2005a) Bipolar patterns of intraspecific competition in bryozoans. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 285:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes DKA, Kukliński P (2005b) Low colonisation on artificial substrata in arctic Spitsbergen. Polar Biol 29:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartsch I, Wiencke C, Bischof K, Buchholz CM, Buck BH, Eggert A, Feuerpfeil P, Hanelt D, Jacobsen S, Karez R, Karsten U, Molis M, Roleda MY, Schubert H, Schumann R, Valentin K, Weinberger F, Wiese J (2008) The genus Laminaria sensu lato: recent insights and developments. Eur J Phycol 43:1–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bartsch I, Paar M, Fredriksen S, Schwanitz M, Daniel C, Wiencke C (2016) Changes in kelp forest biomass and depth distribution in Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) between 1996-1998 and 2012-2014 reflect Arctic warming. Polar Biol 39:2021–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bender A (2014) Dichteabhängige Effekte und Nahrungspräferenzen von Konsumenten auf arktische Weichbodengemeinschaften. Master thesis, University of Rostock, 66 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Berge J, Johnsen G, Nilsen F, Gulliksen B, Slagstad D (2005) Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in Svalbard after a 1000 year absence. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 303:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berge J, Renaud PE, Eiane K, Gulliksen B, Cottier FR, Varpe Ø, Brattegard T (2009) Changes in the decapod fauna of an Arctic fjord during the last 100 years (1908-2007). Polar Biol 32:953–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berge J, Daase M, Renaud PE, Ambrose WG, Darnis G, Last KS, Leu E, Cohen JH, Johnsen G, Moline MA, Cottier F, Varpe Ø, Shunatova N, Balazy P, Morata N, Massabuau JC, Falk-Petersen S, Kosobokova K, Hoppe CJM, Węsławski JM, Kukliński P, Legeżyńska J, Nikishina D, Cusa M, Kędra M, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Vogedes D, Camus L, Tran D, Michaud E, Gabrielsen TM, Granovitch A, Gonchar A, Krapp R, Callesen TA (2015a) Unexpected levels of biological activity during the polar night offer new perspectives on a warming Arctic. Curr Biol 25:2555–2561 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Berge J, Renaud PE, Darnis G, Cottier F, Last K, Gabrielsen TM, Johnsen G, Seuthe L, Węsławski JM, Leu E, Moline M, Nahrgang J, Søreide JE, Varpe Ø, Lønne OJ, Daase M, Falk-Petersen S (2015b) In the dark: a review of ecosystem processes during the Arctic polar night. Prog Oceanogr 139:258–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beuchel F, Gulliksen B (2008) Temporal patterns of benthic community development in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard): results of a 24-year manipulation study. Polar Biol 31:913–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Beuchel F, Gulliksen B, Carroll ML (2006) Long-term patterns of rocky bottom macrobenthic community structure in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) in relation to climate variability (1980–2003). J Mar Syst 63:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beukema JJ (1991) The abundance of shore crabs Carcinus maenas (L.) on a tidal flat in the Wadden Sea after cold and mild winters. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 153:97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bick A, Arlt G (2005) Intertidal and subtidal soft-bottom macro- and meiofauna of the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 28:550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bischof K, Gomez I, Molis M, Hanelt D, Karsten U, Lüder UH, Roleda MY, Zacher K, Wiencke C (2006) Ultraviolet radiation shapes seaweed communities. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 5:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bischof K, Buschbaum C, Fredriksen S, Gordillo FJL, Heinrich S, Jiménez C, Lütz C, Molis M, Roleda MY, Schwanitz M, Wiencke C (this volume) Chapter 10: Kelps and environmental changes in Kongsfjorden: Stress perception and responses. In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  29. Blanchard AL, Feder HM, Hoberg MK (2010) Temporal variability of benthic communities in an Alaskan glacial fjord, 1971-2007. Mar Environ Res 69:95–107PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Bluhm BA, Iken K, Hardy SM, Sirenko BI, Holladay BA (2009) Community structure of epibenthic megafauna in the Chukchi Sea. Aquat Biol 7:269–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bolam SG, Fernandes TF (2003) Dense aggregations of Pygospio elegans (Claparede): effect on macrofaunal community structure and sediments. J Sea Res 49:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Born EW, Acquarone M (2007) An estimation of walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) predation on bivalves in the Young Sound area (NE Greenland). In: Rysgaard S, Glud RN (eds) Carbon cycling in Arctic marine ecosystems: case study Young Sound, vol 58. vol Meddr Grønland, Bioscience, pp 176–191Google Scholar
  33. Bouma TJ, Olenin S, Reise K, Ysebaert T (2009) Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses. Helgol Mar Res 63:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bowden DA, Clarke A, Peck LS, Barnes DKA (2006) Antarctic sessile marine benthos: colonisation and growth on artificial substrata over three years. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 316:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brand M, Fischer P (2016) Species composition and abundance of the shallow water fish community of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol 39:2155–2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bruno JF, Stachowicz JJ, Bertness MD (2003) Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends Ecol Evol 18:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carlsen BP, Johnsen G, Berge J, Kukliński P (2007) Biodiversity patterns of macro-epifauna on different lamina parts of Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima collected during spring and summer 2004 in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol 30:939–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chapman AS, Fletcher RL (2002) Differential effects of sediments on survival and growth of Fucus serratus embryos (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). J Phycol 38:894–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chenelot H, Jewett SC, Hoberg MK (eds) (2008) Invertebrate communities asociated with various substrates in the nearshore Eastern Aleutian Islands, with emphasis on thick crustose coralline algae. Diving for Science. In: Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences, 27th symposiumGoogle Scholar
  40. Chenelot H, Jewett SC, Hoberg MK (2011) Macrobenthos of the nearshore Aleutian Archipelago, with emphasis on invertebrates associated with Clathromorphum nereostratum (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae). Mar Biodivers 41:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Christie H, Jørgensen NM, Norderhaug KM, Waage-Nielsen E (2003) Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian coast. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 83:687–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Clark GF, Stark JS, Johnston EL, Runcie JW, Goldsworthy PM, Raymond B, Riddle MJ (2013) Light-driven tipping points in polar ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 19:3749–3761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cochrane SJ (2003) Snowflakes and feather-dusters – some challenges for soft-bottom fanworm systematics. Hydrobiologia 496:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Conlan KE, Kvitek RG (2005) Recolonization of soft-sediment ice scours on an exposed Arctic coast. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 286:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Conlan KE, Lenihan HS, Kvitek RG, Oliver JS (1998) Ice scour disturbance to benthic communities in the Canadian High Arctic. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 166:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Connell JH, Slatyer RO (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organisation. Am Nat 111:1119–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cottier FR, Nilsen F, Inall ME, Gerland S, Tverberg V, Svendsen H (2007) Wintertime warming of an Arctic shelf in response to large-scale atmospheric circulation. Geophys Res Lett 34:L10607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dayton PK (1990) Polar benthos. In: Smith WO Jr (ed) Polar oceanography, part B: chemistry, biology and geology, vol 631–685. Academic, San Diego, p 760Google Scholar
  50. Doney SC, Ruckelshaus M, Duffy JE, Barry JP, Chan F, English CA, Galindo HM, Grebmeier JM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD (2012) Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. In: Carlson CA, Giovannoni SJ (eds) Annual Review of Marine Science, vol 4. Palo Alto, pp 11–37Google Scholar
  51. Dowdeswell JA, Forsberg CF (1992) The size and frequency of icebergs and bergy bits derived from tidewater glaciers in Kongsfjorden, Northwest Spitsbergen. Polar Res 11:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dunton KH, Schell DM (1987) Dependence of consumers on macroalgal (Laminaria solidungula) carbon in an Arctic kelp community – delta-C-13 evidence. Mar Biol 93:615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dunton KH, Reimnitz E, Schonberg S (1982) An Arctic kelp community in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Arctic 35:465–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eilertsen HC, Taasen JP, Węsławski JM (1989) Phytoplankton studies in the fjords of West Spitsbergen: physical environment and production in spring and summer. J Plankton Res 11:1245–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ellis DV (1955) Some observations on the shore fauna of Baffin Island. Arctic 8:224–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ellis DV, Wilce RT (1961) Arctic and sub-Arctic examples of intertidal zonation. Arctic 14:224–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elverhøi A, Lønne OJ, Seland R (1993) Glaciomarine sedimentation in a modern fjord environment. Spitsbergen Polar Res 1:127–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Estes JA, Terborgh J, Brashaeres JS, Power ME, Berger J, Bond WJ, Carpenter SR, Essington TE, Holt RD, Jackson JBC, Marquis RJ, Oksanen L, Oksanen T, Paine RT, Pikitch EK, Ripple WJ, Sandin SA, Scheffer M, Schoener TW, Shurin JB, Sinclair ARE, Soule ME, Virtanen R, Wardle DA (2011) Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science 333:301–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fagerli CW, Norderhaug KM, Christie H, Pedersen MF, Fredriksen S (2014) Predators of the destructive sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis on the Norwegian coast. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 502:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Feder HM, Jewett SC (1988) The subtidal benthos. In: Shaw DG, Hameedi MJ (eds) Environmental studies in Port Valdez, Alaska. A basis for management. Springer, New York, pp 165–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Feder HM, Matheke GEM (1980) Subtidal benthos. In: Colonell JM (ed) Port Valdez, Alaska: environmental studies 1976–1979, vol Occasional publication no. 57. Institute of Marine Science, Fairbanks, pp 237–324Google Scholar
  62. Feder HM, Norton DW, Geller JB (2003) A review of apparent 20th century changes in the presence of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and macroalgae in Arctic Alaska, and of historical and paleontological evidence used to relate mollusc distributions to climate change. Arctic 56:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Feder HM, Jewett SC, Blanchard A (2005) Southeastern Chukchi Sea (Alaska) epibenthos. Polar Biol 28:402–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Feder HM, Jewett SC, Blanchard AL (2007) Southeastern Chukchi Sea (Alaska) macrobenthos. Polar Biol 30:261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Feder HM, Iken K, Blanchard AL, Jewett SC, Schonberg S (2011) Benthic food web structure in the southeastern Chukchi Sea: an assessment using delta C-13 and delta N-15 analyses. Polar Biol 34:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fetzer I, Lønne OJ, Pearson T (2002) The distribution of juvenile benthic invertebrates in an arctic glacial fjord. Polar Biol 25:303–315Google Scholar
  67. Fredriksen S, Bartsch I, Wiencke C (2014) New additions to the benthic marine flora of Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, and comparison between 1996/1998 and 2012/2013. Bot Mar 57:203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fricke A, Molis M, Wiencke C, Valdivia N, Chapman AS (2008) Natural succession of macroalgal-dominated epibenthic assemblages at different water depths and after transplantation from deep to shallow water on Spitsbergen. Polar Biol 31:1191–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fricke A, Molis M, Wiencke C, Valdivia N, Chapman AS (2011) Effects of UV radiation on the structure of Arctic macrobenthic communities. Polar Biol 34:995–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gili JM, Coma R, Orejas C, Lopez-Gonzalez PJ, Zabala M (2001) Are Antarctic suspension-feeding communities different from those elsewhere in the world? Polar Biol 24:473–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Glover AG, Smith CR, Mincks SL, Sumida PY, Thurber A (2008) Temporal and spatial patterns in macrofaunal abundance and community structure on the West Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Deep-Sea Res Pt II 55:2491–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Glud RN, Woelfel J, Karsten U, Kühl M, Rysgaard S (2009) Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: applied methods and status of the current database. Bot Mar 52:559–571Google Scholar
  73. Gomez I, Wulff A, Roleda MY, Huovinen P, Karsten U, Quartino ML, Dunton K, Wiencke C (2009) Light and temperature demands of marine benthic microalgae and seaweeds in polar regions. Bot Mar 52:593–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gorlich K, Węsławski JM, Zajączkowski M (1987) Suspension settling effect on macrobenthos biomass distribution in the Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. Polar Res 5:175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gray JS (2000) The measurement of marine species diversity, with an application to the benthic fauna of the Norwegian continental shelf. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 250:23–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Grebmeier JM (2012) Shifting patterns of life in the Pacific Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas. In: Carlson CA, Giovannoni SJ (eds) Annual review of marine science, vol 4. pp 63–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Grebmeier JM, Barry JP (1991) The influence of oceanographic processes on pelagic-benthic coupling in polar regions: a benthic perspective. J Mar Syst 2:495–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gulliksen B, Svensen E (2004) Svalbard and life in polar oceans. Kom forlag, Kristiansund, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  79. Gulliksen B, Palerud R, Brattegard T, Sneli J (1999) Distribution of marine benthic macro-organisms at Svalbard (including Bear Island) and Jan Mayen. Research Report for DN 1999-04. Directorate for Nature Management, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  80. Gutt J (2001) On the direct impact of ice on marine benthic communities, a review. Polar Biol 24:553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gutt J, Piepenburg D (2003) Scale-dependent impact on diversity of Antarctic benthos caused by grounding of icebergs. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 253:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gutt J, Starmans A (2001) Quantification of iceberg impact and benthic recolonisation patterns in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biol 24:615–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Häder D-P, Williamson CE, Wangberg S-A, Rautio M, Rose KC, Gao KS, Helbling EW, Sinha RP, Worrest R (2015) Effects of UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with other environmental factors. Photochem Photobiol 14:108–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hanelt D, Bischof K, Wiencke C (2004) The radiation, temperature and salinity regime in Kongsfjorden. In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey Station in the years 1991–2003. Berichte Polar- und Meeresforschung, vol 492. Alfred-Wegener Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, pp 14–25Google Scholar
  85. Hansen JR, Haugen I (1989) Some observations of intertidal communities on Spitsbergen (79°N), Norwegian Arctic. Polar Res 7:23–27Google Scholar
  86. Hegseth EN, Assmy P, Wiktor JM, Wiktor J Jr, Kristiansen S, Leu ES, Tverberg V, Gabrielsen TM, Skogseth R, Cottier F (this volume-b) Chapter 6: Phytoplankton seasonal dynamics in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard and the adjacent shelf. In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  87. Harris JL, MacIsaac K, Gilkinson KD, Kenchington EL (2009) Feeding biology of Ophiura sarsii Lutken, 1855 on Banquereau bank and the effects of fishing. Mar Biol 156:1891–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hjelstuen BO, Eldholm O, Faleide JI (2007) Recurrent Pleistocene mega-failures on the SW Barents Sea margin. Earth Planet Sci Lett 258:605–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hoberg MK, Feder HM, Jewett SC (1980) Some aspects of the biology of the parasitic gastropd, Asterophila japonica Randall and heath (Prosobranchia, Melanellidae), from southeastern Chukchi Sea and northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska. Ophelia 19:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hoberg MK, McGee SG, Feder HM (1982) Polychaetes and amphipods as commensals with pagurids from the Alaska shelf. Ophelia 21:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Holte B, Dahle S, Gulliksen B, Næs K (1996) Some macrofaunal effects of local pollution and glacier-induced sedimentation with indicative chemical analyses in the sediments of two Arctic fjords. Polar Biol 16:549–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hop H, Pearson T, Hegseth EN, Kovacs KM, Wiencke C, Kwasniewski S, Eiane K, Mehlum F, Gulliksen B, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Lydersen C, Węsławski JM, Cochrane S, Gabrielsen GW, Leakey RJG, Lønne OJ, Zajączkowski M, Falk-Petersen S, Kendall M, Wängberg S-Å, Bischof K, Voronkov AY, Kovaltchouk NA, Wiktor J, Poltermann M, di Prisco G, Papucci C, Gerland S (2002) The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 21:167–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hop H, Wiencke C, Vogele B, Kovaltchouk NA (2012) Species composition, zonation, and biomass of marine benthic macroalgae in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Bot Mar 55:399–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hop H, Kovaltchouk NA, Wiencke C (2016) Distribution of macroalgae in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol 39:2037–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Huang R, Boney AD (1985) Individual and combined interactions between littoral diatoms and sporelings of red algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 85:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Huston MA (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Nat 113:81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Iken K, Bluhm BA, Gradinger R (2005) Food web structure in the high Arctic Canada Basin: evidence from delta C-13 and delta N-15 analysis. Polar Biol 28:238–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. IPCC (2013) Summary for policymakers. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis contribution of Working Group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 29 ppGoogle Scholar
  99. IPCC (2014) Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, RK Pachauri and LA Meyer (eds) IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  100. Jewett SC, Feder HM, Blanchard A (1999) Assessment of the benthic environment following offshore placer gold mining in the northeastern Bering Sea. Mar Environ Res 48:91–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Johnson KR, Nelson CH (1987) Whales and walruses as tillers of the sea floor. Sci Am 256:112–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jørgensen LL, Gulliksen B (2001) Rocky bottom fauna in arctic Kongsfjord (Svalbard) studied by means of suction sampling and photography. Polar Biol 24:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kaczmarek H, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Legeżyńska J, Zajączkowski M (2005) Shallow sublittoral macrozoobenthos in Kongsfjord, West Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Pol Polar Res 26:137–155Google Scholar
  104. Kamp U, Growley BJ, Khattak GA, Owen LA (2008) GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region. Geomorphology 101:631–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Karez R, Engelbert S, Sommer U (2000) ‘Co-consumption’ and ‘protective coating’: two new proposed effects of epiphytes on their macroalgal hosts in mesograzer-epiphyte-host interactions. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 205:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Karsten U (2007) Salinity tolerance of Arctic kelps from Spitsbergen. Phycol Res 55:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Karsten U, Schaub I, Woelfel J, Sevilgen DS, Schlie C, Becker B, Wulff A, Graeve M, Wagner H (this volume-a) Chapter 8: Living on cold substrata – new insights and approaches to study microphytobenthos ecophysiology and ecology in Kongsfjorden. In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  108. Keats DW, South GR, Steele DH (1985) Algal biomass and diversity in the upper subtidal at a pack-ice distributed site in eastern Newfoundland. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 25:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Keats DW, Green JM, Hooper RG (1989) Arctic algal communities in the region of Nuvuk Island, Northeastern Hudson Bay, Canada. Nat Can 116:53–59Google Scholar
  110. Kędra M, Gromisz S, Jaskuła R, Legeżyńska J, Maciejewska B, Malec E, Opanowski A, Ostrowska K, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Węsławski JM (2010a) Soft bottom macrofauna of an all taxa biodiversity site: Hornsund (77° N, Svalbard). Pol Polar Res 31:309–326 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kędra M, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Węsławski JM (2010b) Decadal change in macrobenthic soft-bottom community structure in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Polar Biol 33:1–11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kędra M, Legeżyńska J, Walkusz W (2011) Shallow winter and summer macrofauna in high Arctic fjord (79° N, Spitsbergen). Mar Biodivers 41:425–439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kędra M, Kuliński K, Walkusz W, Legeżyńska J (2012) The shallow benthic food web structure in the high Arctic does not follow seasonal changes in the surrounding environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 114:183–191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kędra M, Moritz C, Choy ES, David C, Degen R, Duerksen S, Ellingsen I, Gorska B, Grebmeier JM, Kirievskaya D, van Oevelen D, Piwosz K, Samuelsen A, Węsławski JM (2015) Status and trends in the structure of Arctic benthic food webs. Polar Res 34:23775. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kendall MA (1994) Polychaete assemblages along a depth gradient in a Spitsbergen Fjord. In: Dauvin JC, Laubier L, Reish DJ (eds) Acte de la 4eme Conference internationale des Polychaetes. Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, vol 162. pp 463–470Google Scholar
  116. Kendall MA, Widdicombe S, Węsławski JM (2003) A multi-scale study of the biodiversity of the benthic infauna of the high-latitude Kongsfjord, Svalbard. Polar Biol 26:383–388Google Scholar
  117. Kim JH, Peterse F, Willmott V, Kristensen DK, Baas M, Schouten S, Damste JSS (2011) Large ancient organic matter contributions to Arctic marine sediments (Svalbard). Limnol Oceanogr 56:1463–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Konar B (2007) Recolonization of a high latitude hard-bottom nearshore community. Polar Biol 30:663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Konar B (2013) Lack of recovery from disturbance in high-arctic boulder communities. Polar Biol 36:1205–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Konar B, Iken K (2005) Competitive dominance among sessile marine organisms in a high Arctic boulder community. Polar Biol 29:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kortsch S, Primicerio R, Beuchel F, Renaud PE, Rodrigues J, Lønne OJ, Gulliksen B (2012) Climate-driven regime shifts in Arctic marine benthos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:14052–14057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kortsch S, Primicerio R, Fossheim M, Dolgov AV, Aschan M (2015) Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists. Proc R Soc B 282:20151546PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Krapp RH (2002) Ecological studies on echinoderms in Svalbard waters. Diploma thesis, University of Kiel, 59 pGoogle Scholar
  124. Krause-Jensen D, Duarte CM (2014) Expansion of vegetated coastal ecosystems in the future Arctic. Front Mar Sci 1:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Krumhansl KA, Scheibling RE (2012) Production and fate of kelp detritus. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 467:281–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Krumhansl KA, Krkosek WH, Greenwood M, Ragush C, Schmidt J, Grant J, Barrell J, Lu L, Lam B, Gagnon GA, Jamieson RC (2015) Assessment of Arctic community wastewater impacts on marine benthic invertebrates. Environ Sci Technol 49:760–766PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Kukliński P, Gulliksen B, Lønne OJ, Węsławski JM (2006) Substratum as a structuring influence on assemblages of Arctic bryozoans. Polar Biol 29:652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kukliński P, Berge J, McFadden L, Dmoch K, Zajączkowski M, Nygård H, Piwosz K, Tatarek A (2013) Seasonality of occurrence and recruitment of Arctic marine benthic invertebrate larvae in relation to environmental variables. Polar Biol 36:549–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kuliński K, Kędra M, Legeżyńska J, Gluchowska M, Zaborska A (2014) Particulate organic matter sinks and sources in high Arctic fjord. J Mar Syst 139:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kutz SJ, Jenkins EJ, Veitch AM, Ducrocq J, Polley L, Elkin B, Lair S (2009) The Arctic as a model for anticipating, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on host-parasite interactions. Vet Parasitol 163:217–228PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Kvitek RG, Conlan KE, Iampietro PJ (1998) Black pools of death: hypoxic, brine-filled ice gouge depressions become lethal traps for benthic organisms in a shallow Arctic embayment. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 162:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lam C, Harder T, Qian PY (2005) Growth conditions of benthic diatoms affect quality and quantity of extracellular polymeric larval settlement cues. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 294:109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lantuit H, Overduin PP, Couture N, Wetterich S, Aré F, Atkinson D, Brown J, Cherkashov G, Drozdov D, Forbes DL, Graves-Gaylord A, Grigoriev M, Hubberten HW, Jordan J, Jorgenson T, Ødegård RS, Ogorodov S, Pollard WH, Rachold V, Sedenko S, Solomon S, Steenhuisen F, Streletskaya I, Vasiliev A (2012) The Arctic coastal dynamics database: a new classification scheme and statistics on Arctic permafrost coastlines. Estuar Coasts 35:383–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Laudien J, Orchard J-B (2012) The significance of depth and substratum incline for the structure of a hard bottom sublittoral community in glacial Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Arctic)-an underwater imagery approach. Polar Biol 35:1057–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Laudien J, Herrmann M, Arntz WE (2004) Soft bottom community structure and diversity in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey Station in the years 1991–2003. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung, vol 492. Alfred Wegener Insitute, Bremerhaven, pp 91–102Google Scholar
  136. Laudien J, Herrmann M, Arntz WE (2007) Soft bottom species richness and diversity as a function of depth and iceberg scour in Arctic glacial Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). Polar Biol 30:1035–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lefauconnier B, Hagen JO, Rudant JP (1994) Flow speed and calving rate of Kongsbreen glacier, Svalbard, using SPOT images. Polar Res 13:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Legeżyńska J (2001) Distribution patterns and feeding strategies of lysianassoid amphipods in shallow waters of an Arctic fjord. Pol Polar Res 22:173–186Google Scholar
  139. Legeżyńska J (2008) Food resource partitioning among Arctic sublittoral lysianassoid amphipods in summer. Polar Biol 31:663–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Legeżyńska J, Węsławski JM, Presler P (2000) Benthic scavengers collected by baited traps in the high Arctic. Polar Biol 23:539–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Legeżyńska J, Kędra M, Walkusz W (2014) Identifying trophic relationships within the high Arctic benthic community: how much can fatty acids tell? Mar Biol 161:821–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lippert H, Iken K (2003) Palatability and nutritional quality of marine invertebrates in a sub-Arctic fjord. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 83:1215–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lippert H, Iken K, Rachor E, Wiencke C (2001) Macrofauna associated with macroalgae in the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 24:512–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lippert H, Iken K, Volk C, Kock M, Rachor E (2004) Chemical defence against predators in a sub-Arctic fjord. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 310:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lowry LF, Frost KJ, Burns JJ (1980a) Variability in the diet of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, in Alaska. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:2254–2261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Lowry LF, Frost KJ, Burns JJ (1980b) Feeding of bearded seals in the Bering and Chukchi seas and trophic interaction with Pacific walruses. Arctic 33:330–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Lydersen C, Kovacs KM, Lydersen E (2001) Rust-colored bearded (Erignathus barbatus) and ringed (Phoca hispida) seals from Svalbard, Norway. J Mammal 82:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. MacGinitie GE (1955) Distribution and ecology of the marine invertebrates of point Barrow, Alaska. Smithson Misc Collect 128:201Google Scholar
  149. Madsen H (1936) Investigations on the shore Fauna of East Greenland with a survey of the shores of other Arctic regions: treaarsexpeditionen Til Christian Den X’s Land 1931–34 Under Ledelse Af Lauge Koch. ReitzelGoogle Scholar
  150. Markowska M, Janecki T, Kidawa A (2008) Field observations of the spider crab Hyas araneus (L., 1758): feeding behaviour in an Arctic fjord. Crustaceana 81:1211–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Matishov G, Moiseev D, Lyubina O, Zhichkin A, Dzhenyuk S, Karamushko O, Frolova E (2012) Climate and cyclic hydrobiological changes of the Barents Sea from the twentieth to twenty-first centuries. Polar Biol 35:1773–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. McClintic MA, DeMaster DJ, Thomas CJ, Smith CR (2008) Testing the FOODBANCS hypothesis: seasonal variations in near-bottom particle flux, bioturbation intensity, and deposit feeding based on Th-234 measurements. Deep-Sea Res II 55:2425–2437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. McMahon KW, Ambrose WG Jr, Johnson BJ, Sun MY, Lopez GR, Clough LM, Carroll ML (2006) Benthic community response to ice algae and phytoplankton in Ny Alesund, Svalbard. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 310:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. McMeans BC, Rooney N, Arts MT, Fisk AT (2013) Food web structure of a coastal Arctic marine ecosystem and implications for stability. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 482:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Menge BA, Sutherland JP (1987) Community regulation: variation in disturbance, competition, and predation in relation to environmental stress and recruitment. Am Nat 130:730–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Merkel FR, Jamieson SE, Falk K, Mosbech A (2007a) The diet of common eiders wintering in Nuuk, Southwest Greenland. Polar Biol 30:227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Merkel FR, Mosbech A, Jamieson SE, Falk K (2007b) The diet of king eiders wintering in Nuuk, Southwest Greenland, with reference to sympatric wintering common eiders. Polar Biol 30:1593–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mincks SL, Smith CR, DeMaster DJ (2005) Persistence of labile organic matter and microbial biomass in Antarctic shelf sediments: evidence of a sediment ‘food bank’. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 300:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Molis M, Wessels H, Hagen W, Karsten U, Wiencke C (2008) Do sulphuric acid and the brown alga Desmarestia viridis support community structure in Arctic kelp patches by altering grazing impact, distribution patterns, and behaviour of sea urchins? Polar Biol 32:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Moore PG (1977) Inorganic particulate suspensions in the sea and their effects on marine animals. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 15:225–363Google Scholar
  161. Morata N, Michaud E, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M (2015) Impact of early food input on the Arctic benthos activities during the polar night. Polar Biol 38:99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mueter FJ, Litzow MA (2008) Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf. Ecol Appl 18:309–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Müller R, Wiencke C, Bischof K (2008) Interactive effects of UV radiation and temperature on microstages of Laminariales (Phaeophyceae) from the Arctic and North Sea. Clim Res 37:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Müller R, Laepple T, Bartsch I, Wiencke C (2009) Impact of oceanic warming on the distribution of seaweeds in polar and cold-temperate waters. Bot Mar 52:617–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Newell RC, Seiderer LJ, Hitchcock DR (1998) The impact of dredging works in coastal waters: a review of the sensitivity to disturbance and subsequent recovery of biological resources on the sea bed. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 36:127–178Google Scholar
  166. Norton DW, Feder HM (2006) Mytilus thermophily? Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 309:301–303Google Scholar
  167. Nowak C (2012) Sukzession von Makrozoobenthosgemeinschaften arktischer Weichböden (Kongsfjorden, Spitzbergen) – ein in situ-Experiment. Bachelor thesis, Carl von Ossietzky University, p 25Google Scholar
  168. Nowak A, Hodson A (2013) Hydrological response of a high-Arctic catchment to changing climate over the past 35 years: a case study of Bayelva watershed, Svalbard. Polar Res 32:19691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Nowak CA, Laudien J, Sahade RJ (2016) Rising temperatures and sea-ice-free winters affect the succession of Arctic macrozoobenthic soft-sediment communities (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Polar Biology 39:2097–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Nygård H, Berge J, Søreide JE, Vihtakari M, Falk-Petersen S (2012) The amphipod scavenging guild in two Arctic fjords: seasonal variations, abundance and trophic interactions. Aquat Biol 14:247–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ockelmann WK (1958) The zoology of East Greenland, Marine Lamellibranchiata. Medd Grønland 122:1–256Google Scholar
  172. Okey TA (1997) Sediment flushing observations, earthquake slumping, and benthic community changes in Monterey Canyon head. Cont Shelf Res 17:877–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Paar M (2012) Does glacier generated sedimentation affect growth rate and performance of the Greenland cockle Serripes groenlandicus? MSc thesis, University of Kiel, 51ppGoogle Scholar
  174. Paar M, Voronkov A, Hop H, Brey T, Bartsch I, Schwanitz M, Wiencke C, Lebreton B, Asmus R, Asmus H (2016) Temporal shift in biomass and production of macrozoobenthos in the macroalgal belt at Hansneset, Kongsfjorden, after 15 years. Polar Biol 39:2065–2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Pabis K, Kędra M, Gromisz S (2015) Distinct or similar? Soft bottom polychaete diversity in Arctic and Antarctic glacial fjords. Hydrobiologia 742:279–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Paine RT (2002) Trophic control of production in a rocky intertidal community. Science 296:736–739PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Pavlov AK, Tverberg V, Ivanov BV, Nilsen F, Falk-Petersen S, Granskog MA (2013) Warming of Atlantic water in two West Spitsbergen fjords over the last century (1912-2009). Polar Res 32:11206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pavlova O, Gerland S (Hop H, this volume) Chapter 4: Changes in sea-ice extent and Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (2003–2016). In: Hop H, Wiencke C (eds) The ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Advances in polar ecology 2. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  179. Pearse VB, Pearse JS (1991) Year-long settling plate study yields no Antarctic placozoans, and surprisingly little else. Antarct J US 26:149–150Google Scholar
  180. Peckarsky BL, Abrams PA, Bolnick DI, Dill LM, Grabowski JH, Luttbeg B, Orrock JL, Peacor SD, Preisser EL, Schmitz OJ, Trussell GC (2008) Revisiting the classics: considering nonconsumptive effects in textbook examples of predator-prey interactions. Ecology 89:2416–2425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Pelletreau KN, Muller-Parker G (2002) Sulfuric acid in the phaeophyte alga Desmarestia munda deters feeding by the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Mar Biol 141:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Petrowski S, Molis M, Bender A, Buschbaum C (2016a) Disturbance effects of kelp thalli on structure and diversity of a coastal Arctic marine soft-bottom assemblage. Polar Biol 39:2131–2121–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Petrowski S, Molis M, Schachtl K, Buschbaum C (2016b) Do bioturbation and consumption affect coastal Arctic marine soft-bottom communities? Polar Biol 39:2141–2153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Polyakov IV, Timokhov LA, Alexeev VA, Bacon S, Dmitrenko IA, Fortier L, Frolov IE, Gascard JC, Hansen E, Ivanov VV, Laxon S, Mauritzen C, Perovich D, Shimada K, Simmons HL, Sokolov VT, Steele M, Toolen J (2010) Arctic Ocean warming contributes to reduced Polar Ice cap. J Phys Oceanogr 40:2743–2756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Post E, Bhatt US, Bitz CM, Brodie JF, Fulton TL, Hebblewhite M, Kerby J, Kutz SJ, Stirling I, Walker DA (2013) Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline. Science 341:519–524PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Quijon PA, Snelgrove PVR (2005) Differential regulatory roles of crustacean predators in a sub-arctic, soft-sediment system. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 285:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ray GC, McCormick-Ray J, Berg P, Epstein HE (2006) Pacific walrus: benthic bioturbator of Beringia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 330:403–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Reise K (1985) Tidal flat ecology. An experimental approach to species interactions, Ecological studies, vol 54. Spinger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  189. Renaud PE, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Trannum H, Holte B, Węsławski JM, Cochrane S, Dahle S, Gulliksen B (2007) Multidecadal stability of benthic community structure in a high-Arctic glacial fjord (van Mijenfjord, Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 30:295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Renaud PE, Carroll ML, Ambrose WG Jr (2008) Effects of global warming on Arctic Sea-floor communities and its consequences for higher trophic levels. In: Duarte CM (ed) Impacts of global warming on polar ecosystems. FBBVA Press, Bilbao, pp 139–177Google Scholar
  191. Renaud PE, Tessmann M, Evenset A, Christensen GN (2011) Benthic food-web structure of an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Mar Biol Res 7:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Renaud PE, Løkken TS, Jørgensen LL, Berge J, Johnson BJ (2015a) Macroalgal detritus and food-web subsidies along an Arctic fjord depth-gradient. Front Mar Sci 2:Article 31Google Scholar
  193. Renaud PE, Sejr MK, Bluhm BA, Sirenko B, Ellingsen IH (2015b) The future of Arctic benthos: expansion, invasion, and biodiversity. Prog Oceanogr 139:244–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Rhoads DC, Young DK (1970) The influence of deposit-feeding organisms on sediment stability and community trophic structure. J Mar Res 28:150–178Google Scholar
  195. Ricklefs RE (1990) Ecology. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. 896 ppGoogle Scholar
  196. Rokicki J (2009) Effects of climatic changes on anisakid nematodes in polar regions. Polar Sci 3:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Ronowicz M, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Kukliński P (2008) Factors influencing hydroids (Cnidaria: hydrozoa) biodiversity and distribution in Arctic kelp forest. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 88:1567–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Ronowicz M, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Kukliński P (2013) Hydroid epifaunal communities in Arctic coastal waters (Svalbard): effects of substrate characteristics. Polar Biol 36:705–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rozycki O, Gruszczyski M (1986) Macrofauna associated with laminarians in the coastal waters of West Spitsbergen. Pol Polar Res 7:337–351Google Scholar
  200. Sahade R, Stellfeldt A, Tatian M, Laudien J (2004) Macro-epibenthic communities and diversity of arctic Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in relation to depth and substrate. Rep Pol Mar Res 492:103–113Google Scholar
  201. Sahade R, Lagger C, Torre L, Momo F, Monien P, Schloss I, Barnes DKA, Servetto N, Tarantelli S, Tatian M, Zamboni N, Abele D (2015) Climate change and glacier retreat drive shifts in an Antarctic benthic ecosystem. Sci Adv 1:e1500050PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Saloranta TM, Haugan PM (2001) Interannual variability in the hydrography of Atlantic water northwest of Svalbard. J Geophys Res-Oceans 106:13931–13943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Scheibling RE, Stephenson RI (1984) Mass mortality of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) off Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar Biol 78:153–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Schmiing M (2005) Sukzession in benthischen Makrofauna-Gemeinschaften der Arktis – ein Jahresvergleich. Master’s thesis, University of Bremen, 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  205. Schuster RL, Highland LM (2007) Overview of the effects of mass wasting on the natural environment. Environ Eng Geosci 13:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Schwalfenberg K (2011) Sukzession von hart benthischen Gemeinschaften des Kongsfjorden (Spitzbergen Arktis) über den Zeitraum der Jahre 2003 bis 2011. BSc thesis, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  207. Serreze MC, Barrett AP, Stroeve JC, Kindig DN, Holland MM (2009) The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification. Cryosphere 3:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sevilgen DS, de Beer D, Al-Handal AY, Brey T, Polerecky L (2014) Oxygen budgets in subtidal arctic (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) and temperate (Helgoland, North Sea) microphytobenthic communities. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 504:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sheffield G, Grebmeier JM (2009) Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens): differential prey digestion and diet. Mar Mamm Sci 25:761–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sirenko BI, Gagaev SY (2007) Unusual abundance of macrobenthos and biological invasions in the Chukchi Sea. Russ J Mar Biol 33:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Sivertsen K (2006) Overgrazing of kelp beds along the coast of Norway. J Appl Phycol 18:599–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Skadsheim A, Christie H, Leinaas HP (1995) Population reductions of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinodermata) in Norway and the distribution of its endoparasite Echinomermella matsi (Nematoda). Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 119:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Smith CR, DeMaster DJ (2008) Preface and brief synthesis for the FOODBANCS volume. Deep-Sea Res II 55:2399–2403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Soltwedel T, Bauerfeind E, Bergmann M, Budaeva N, Hoste E, Jaeckisch N, Juterzenka KV, Matthiessen J, Mokievsky V, Nöthig E-M, Queric N, Sauter E, Schewe I, Urban-Malinga B, Wegner J, Włodarska-Kowalzuk M, Klages M (2005) HAUSGARTEN – multidisciplinary investigations at a deep-sea long-term observatory in the Arctic Ocean. Oceanography 18:46–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sousa WP (1979) Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder fields: the nonequilibrium maintenance of species diversity. Ecology 60:1225–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sparck R (1933) Contribution to the animal ecology of the Franz Josef Fjord and adjacent waters of East Greenland. Medd Grønland 100:1–36Google Scholar
  217. Streicher MD (2014) Sukzession arktischer Hartboden Lebensgemeinschaften. Master’s thesis, University of Rostock, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  218. Sun MY, Carroll ML, Ambrose WG Jr, Clough LM, Zou L, Lopez GR (2007) Rapid consumption of phytoplankton and ice algae by Arctic soft-sediment benthic communities: evidence using natural and C-13-labeled food materials. J Mar Res 65:561–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sun MY, Clough LM, Carroll ML, Dai JH, Ambrose WG Jr, Lopez GR (2009) Different responses of two common Arctic macrobenthic species (Macoma balthica and Monoporeia affinis) to phytoplankton and ice algae: will climate change impacts be species specific? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 376:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Sundet JH, Bakanev S (2014) Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) – a new invasive crab species becoming an important player in the Barents Sea ecosystem. ICES CM/2014, Theme Session F Arctic biodiversity under climate change and other stressors:04, 2Google Scholar
  221. Svendsen P (1959) The algal vegetation of Spitsbergen. Nor Polarinst Skr 116:1–49Google Scholar
  222. Svendsen H, Beszczynska-Møller A, Hagen JO, Lefauconnier B, Tverberg V, Gerland S, Ørbæk JB, Bischof K, Papucci C, Zajączkowski M, Azzolini R, Bruland O, Wiencke C, Winther J-G, Dallmann W (2002) The physical environment of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard. Polar Res 21:167–208Google Scholar
  223. Syvitski JPM, Farrow GE, Atkinson RJA, Moore PG, Andrews JT (1989) Baffin Island fjord macrobenthos: bottom communities and environmental significance. Arctic 42:232–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Szymelfenig M, Kwaśniewski S, Węsławski JM (1995) Intertidal zone of Svalbard. 2. Meiobenthos density and occurrence. Polar Biol 15:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tamelander T, Renaud PE, Hop H, Carroll ML, Ambrose WG Jr, Hobson KA (2006) Trophic relationships and pelagic-benthic coupling during summer in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone, revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 310:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Teichert S, Woelkerling W, Rüggeberg A, Wisshak M, Piepenburg D, Meyerhöfer M, Form A, Budenbender J, Freiwald A (2012) Rhodolith beds (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) and their physical and biological environment at 80 degrees 31′ N in Nordkappbukta (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway). Phycologia 51:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Teichert S, Woelkerling W, Rüggeberg A, Wisshak M, Piepenburg D, Meyerhöfer M, Form A, Freiwald A (2014) Arctic rhodolith beds and their environmental controls (Spitsbergen, Norway). Facies 60:15–37Google Scholar
  228. Thompson JC (2002) The influence of hunger and olfactory cues on the feeding behavior of the waved whelk, Buccinum undatum, on the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Veliger 45:55–57Google Scholar
  229. Torre L, Abele D, Lagger C, Momo F, Sahade R (2014) When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation. Mar Environ Res 99:179–187PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  230. Veit-Köhler G, Laudien J, Knott J, Velez J, Sahade R (2008) Meiobenthic colonisation of soft sediments in arctic glacial Kongsfjorden (Svalbard). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 363:58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Vinebrooke RD, Leavitt PR (1999) Differential responses of littoral communities to ultraviolet radiation in an alpine lake. Ecology 80:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Voronkov AY, Hop H, Gulliksen B (2013) Diversity of hard-bottom fauna relative to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Res 32:11208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Voronkov A, Hop H, Gulliksen B (2016) Zoobenthic communities on hard-bottom habitats in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Biol 39:2077–2095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Wahl M (1989) Marine epibiosis. I. Fouling and antifouling: some basic aspects. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 58:175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Wang ZB, Hoekstra P, Burchard H, Ridderinkhof H, De Swart HE, Stive MJF (2012) Morphodynamics of the Wadden Sea and its barrier island system. Ocean Coast Manag 68:39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Wassmann P, Reigstad M, Haug T, Rudels B, Carroll ML, Hop H, Gabrielsen GW, Falk-Petersen S, Denisenko SG, Arashkevich E, Slagstad D, Pavlova O (2006) Food webs and carbon flux in the Barents Sea. Prog Oceanogr 71:232–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Watt CA, Scrosati RA (2013) Bioengineer effects on understory species richness, diversity, and composition change along an environmental stress gradient: experimental and mensurative evidence. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 123:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Węsławski JM (1987) Distribution of Decapoda (Crustacea) in South Spitzbergen coastal waters with remarks on their ecology and breeding biology. Pol Polar Res 8:121–134Google Scholar
  239. Węsławski JM, Kwaśniewski S, Wiktor J (1991) Winter in a Svalbard fjord ecosystem. Arctic 44:115–123Google Scholar
  240. Węsławski JM, Wiktor J, Zajączkowsi M, Swerpel S (1993) Intertidal zone of Svalbard. 1. Macroorganism distribution and biomass. Polar Biol 13:73–79Google Scholar
  241. Węsławski JM, Zajączkowski M, Wiktor J, Szymelfenig M (1997) Intertidal zone of Svalbard 3. Littoral of a subarctic, oceanic island: Bjørnøya. Polar Biol 18:45–52Google Scholar
  242. Węsławski JM, Wiktor J Jr, Kotwicki L (2010) Increase in biodiversity in the arctic rocky littoral, Sorkappland, Svalbard, after 20 years of climate warming. Mar Biodivers 40:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Węsławski JM, Kendall MA, Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Iken K, Kędra M, Legeżyńska J, Sejr MK (2011) Climate change effects on Arctic fjord and coastal macrobenthic diversity- observations and predictions. Mar Biodivers 41:71–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wessels H, Hagen W, Molis M, Wiencke C, Karsten U (2006) Intra- and interspecific differences in palatability of Arctic macroalgae from Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) for two benthic sympatric invertebrates. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 329:20–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Wessels H, Karsten U, Wiencke C, Hagen W (2012) On the potential of fatty acids as trophic markers in Arctic grazers: feeding experiments with sea urchins and amphipods fed nine diets of macroalgae. Polar Biol 35:555–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Wiencke C, Vögele B, Kovaltchouk NA, Hop H (2004) Species composition and zonation of marine benthic macroalgae at Hansneset in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. In: Wiencke C (ed) The coastal ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Synopsis of biological research performed at the Koldewey-Station in the years 1991–2003, vol 492. Reports on Polar and marine research, Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, pp 55–62Google Scholar
  247. Wiencke C, Roleda MY, Gruber A, Clayton MN, Bischof K (2006) Susceptibility of zoospores to UV radiation determines upper depth distribution limit of Arctic kelps: evidence through field experiments. J Ecol 94:455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Wiencke C, Clayton MN, Gomez I, Iken K, Lüder UH, Amsler CD, Karsten U, Hanelt D, Bischof K, Dunton K (2007) Life strategy, ecophysiology and ecology of seaweeds in polar waters. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 6:95–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wiig O, Gjertz I, Griffiths D, Lydersen C (1993) Diving patterns of an Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus near Svalbard. Polar Biol 13:71–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wilce RT (1959) The marine algae of the Labrador Peninsula and Northwest Newfoundland (ecology and distribution). Natl Mus Can Bull 158:1–103Google Scholar
  251. Wilson WH (1990) Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 21:221–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Wilson JG, Galaktionov KV, Sukhotin AA, Skirnisson K, Nikolaev KE, Ivanov MI, Bustnes JO, Saville DH, Regel KV (2013) Factors influencing trematode parasite burdens in mussels (Mytilusspp.) from the North Atlantic Ocean across to the North Pacific. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 132:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Winkelmann D, Knies J (2005) Recent distribution and accumulation of organic carbon on the continental margin west off Spitsbergen. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6:Q09012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Pearson TH (2004) Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations and factors affecting species distributions in an Arctic glacial fjord (Kongsfjord, Spitsbergen). Polar Biol 27:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Węsłlawski JM (1996) A comparison of the macrofaunal community structure and diversity in two arctic glacial bays – a ‘cold’ one off Franz Josef Land and a ‘warm’ one off Spitsbergen. Oceanologia 38:251–283Google Scholar
  256. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Węsławski JM (2008) Mesoscale spatial structures of soft-bottom macrozoobenthos communities: effects of physical control and impoverishment. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 356:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Węsławski JM, Kotwicki L (1998) Spitsbergen glacial bays macrobenthos – a comparative study. Polar Biol 20:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Pearson TH, Kendall MA (2005) Benthic response to chronic natural physical disturbance by glacial sedimentation in an Arctic fjord. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 303:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Kędra M (2007) Surrogacy in natural patterns of benthic distribution and diversity: selected taxa versus lower taxonomic resolution. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 351:53–63Google Scholar
  260. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Szymelfenig M, Zajączkowski M (2007) Dynamic sedimentary environments of an Arctic glacier-fed river estuary (Adventfjorden, Svalbard). II: Meio- and macrobenthic fauna. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74:274–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Kukliński P, Ronowicz M, Legeżyńska J, Gromisz S (2009) Assessing species richness of macrofauna associated with macroalgae in Arctic kelp forests (Hornsund, Svalbard). Polar Biol 32:897–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Renaud PE, Węsławski JM, Cochrane SKJ, Denisenko SG (2012) Species diversity, functional complexity and rarity in Arctic fjordic versus open shelf benthic systems. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 463:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Pawlowska J, Zajączkowski M (2013) Do foraminifera mirror diversity and distribution patterns of macrobenthic fauna in an Arctic glacial fjord? Mar Micropaleontol 103:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Włodarska-Kowalczuk M, Gorska B, Deja K, Morata N (2016) Do benthic meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities respond to seasonality in pelagial processes in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen)? Polar Biol 39:2115–2129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Woelfel J, Schumann R, Peine F, Flohr A, Kruss A, Tegowski J, Blondel P, Wiencke C, Karsten U (2010) Microphytobenthos of Arctic Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway): biomass and potential primary production along the shore line. Polar Biol 33:1239–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Woll AK, van der Meeren GI, Fossen I (2006) Spatial variation in abundance and catch composition of Cancer pagurus in Norwegian waters: biological reasoning and implications for assessment. ICES J Mar Sci 63:421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Woodin SA (1999) Shallow water benthic ecology: a North American perspective of sedimentary habitats. Aust J Ecol 24:291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Woodworth-Lynas CMT, Josenhans HW, Barrie JV, Lewis CFM, Parrott DR (1991) The physical processes of seabed disturbance during iceberg grounding and scouring. Cont Shelf Res 11:939–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Young IR, Zieger S, Babanin AV (2011) Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science 332:451–455PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Zacher K, Campana GL (2008) UV and grazing effects on an intertidal and subtidal algal assemblage: a comparative study. In: Wiencke C, Ferreyra A, Abele D, Marenssi S (eds) Reports on polar and marine research. The Antarctic ecosystem of Potter Cove, King-George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo). vol 571. Alfred-Wegener Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, pp 287–294Google Scholar
  271. Zacher K, Wulff A, Molis M, Hanelt D, Wiencke C (2007) Ultraviolet radiation and consumer effects on a field-grown intertidal macroalgal assemblage in Antarctica. Glob Chang Biol 13:1201–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Zacher K, Rautenberger R, Hanelt D, Wulff A, Wiencke C (2009) The abiotic environment of polar marine benthic algae. Bot Mar 52:483–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Zajączkowski M (2008) Sediment supply and fluxes in glacial and outwash fjords, Kongsfjorden and Adventfjorden, Svalbard. Pol Polar Res 29:59–72Google Scholar
  274. Zmudczyńska-Skarbek K, Balazy P, Kukliński P (2015) An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities. J Mar Syst 144:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Molis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frank Beuchel
    • 2
  • Jürgen Laudien
    • 1
  • Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk
    • 3
  • Christian Buschbaum
    • 4
  1. 1.Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  2. 2.Akvaplan-niva A/S, Fram CentreTromsøNorway
  3. 3.Department of Marine EcologyInstitute of Oceanology Polish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  4. 4.Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Wadden Sea Station SyltList/SyltGermany

Personalised recommendations