Amniotic Fluid: A Source of Stem Cells for Therapeutic Use and Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

  • Somaieh KazemnejadEmail author
  • Manijeh Khanmohammadi
  • Abolfazl Shirazi
  • Shaghayegh Arasteh
  • Sayeh Khanjani
  • Mehdi Aleahmad
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)


Nowadays, amniotic fluid (AF) has been introduced as a renewable stem cell source with easy procurement, availability, and without ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells like bone marrow. The immunomodulatory properties of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) along with capacity for long-term culturing, expansion, and cryopreservation make it suitable for potential applications in pharmaceutical screening, disease modeling, and cell-based therapies. Furthermore, there is compelling evidence about safety and functionality of AFSCs in treatment of different diseases in animal models. These features hold promise in clinical treatment of diseases by safe and accessible autologous cells in near future. On the other hand, AFSCs could represent a useful stem cell model for studying the molecular basis of prenatal diagnosed diseases since AFSCs demonstrate some pluripotent properties and are able to differentiate into different lineages. In this chapter, we describe the potential benefits and pitfalls of AFSCs in the regenerative medicine and modeling of human genetic diseases.


Amniotic fluid Stem cells Regenerative medicine Genetic modeling 



Amniotic fluid


Amniotic fluid stem cells


Amniotic fluid stem cell-derived endothelial cells


Adult stem cells


Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells


Bone morphogenetic protein-4


Embryonic stem cells


Glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor


Graft versus host disease


Hepatocyte growth factor receptor


Induced pluripotent stem cells


Intercellular adhesion molecule-1


Muscle-derived stem cells


Mesenchymal stem cells


Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes


Neural cell adhesion molecule


Polyglycolic acid


Stage-specific embryonic antigens






Tumor-rejection antigens-1-60


Tumor-rejection antigens-1-81


Vascular endothelial growth factor


Study Finding/Competing Interest

The authors indicate no potential conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somaieh Kazemnejad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manijeh Khanmohammadi
    • 1
  • Abolfazl Shirazi
    • 1
  • Shaghayegh Arasteh
    • 1
  • Sayeh Khanjani
    • 1
  • Mehdi Aleahmad
    • 2
  1. 1.Reproductive Biotechnology Research CenterAvicenna Research Institute, ACECRTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of ImmunologySchool of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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