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Current Understanding Realities of Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Biology and Future Perspectives in Clinical Application

  • Somayeh Ebrahimi-BaroughEmail author
  • Reza Rahbarghazi
  • Zohreh Bagher
  • Jafar Ai
  • Elham Hoveizi
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

In the recent years from variety of tissues, stem cells have been isolated but seem to be more concerning to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, adult organs, and fetuses show the disadvantages of ethical constraints, invasive isolation, and low cell numbers, and there are the clinical hurdles of potential immunorejection and tumorigenesis in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), respectively. To overcome these limitations, the potential of fetal stem cells derived from birth-associated tissues has been investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells have also been reported in some compartments of the umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) including umbilical blood vessel adventia and endothelium, amnion, subamnion, Wharton’s jelly, perivascular region. UC-MSCs are noncontroversial and ease of sourcing cells. These cells can be harvested painlessly in abundance and have higher rate of proliferation, possess stemness properties, differentiation abilities, immunosuppressive, and do not induce teratomas and have anticancer properties. These advantages make them ideal for their use in cell-based therapies and treatment of cancers. In this chapter, we will at first give an overview of the biology and phenotypic characteristics, then provide an outline of the recent findings related to UC-MSC therapeutic application for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic diseases.

Keywords

Umbilical cord compartments Mesenchymal stem cell Wharton’s jelly Phenotypic characteristics Therapeutic application 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reza Rahbarghazi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zohreh Bagher
    • 4
  • Jafar Ai
    • 1
  • Elham Hoveizi
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Medical SciencesTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and DepartmentHazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran

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