Breast Cancer Epidemiology

  • Alicia Brunßen
  • Joachim Hübner
  • Alexander KatalinicEmail author
  • Maria R. Noftz
  • Annika Waldmann


Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and still one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. In 2012, 1.7 million cases of breast cancer were estimated by the WHO, with a different distribution in the burden of disease. In this chapter, relevant aspects of the epidemiology of breast cancer with an international perspective, including incidence, mortality and prevalence rates, are presented. Additionally, different aspects on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of breast cancer and their diverse impact in women are introduced, such as age, genetic predispositions, anthropometric measures, hormones, breast density, ionizing radiation and diet/lifestyle. In regard to prevention of breast cancer, women can perceive different kinds of primary and secondary prevention measures. For secondary prevention, mammography screening is offered in many countries to women over 50 years. This chapter includes a summary on the latest update on mammography screening and other prevention possibilities. As breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease, different prognostic factors are of great importance to predict on outcome and overall survival in women with breast cancer. The variety of prognostic factors and survival rates are also addressed in this book chapter.


Breast cancer Epidemiology Incidence Prevalence Mortality Survival Risk factors Prognosis Prevention 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicia Brunßen
    • 1
  • Joachim Hübner
    • 2
  • Alexander Katalinic
    • 2
    Email author
  • Maria R. Noftz
    • 2
  • Annika Waldmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Social Medicine and EpidemiologyUniversity of LuebeckLuebeckGermany

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