Management of Common Lactation and Breastfeeding Problems

  • Lisa H. AmirEmail author
  • Verity H. Livingstone


Following childbirth, mothers and neonates should remain together, skin to skin, to allow the process of breastfeeding to begin. Lactation and breastfeeding difficulties manifest in many ways, including infant problems such as failure to thrive, colic, or fussiness and maternal concerns such as nipple pain and damage, or mastitis. The most common reason for premature breastfeeding cessation is insufficient milk. The etiology is multifactorial, but the risk of low supply can be reduced by ensuring correct attachment to the breast and frequent breastfeeds day and night. A small proportion of women have insufficient glandular tissue. Acute mastitis occurs in about one in five breastfeeding and is managed by improving milk drainage, antistaphylococcal antibiotics, and analgesia. Lactational breast abscesses can usually be drained by aspiration under ultrasound visualization, and breastfeeding can continue. Lactation can be successfully induced in nonpregnant women using combinations of medications and breast stimulation.


Breastfeeding Lactation Sore nipples Milk supply Engorgement Mastitis Breast abscess Infant tongue-tie Dermatitis Vasospasm Induced lactation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Judith Lumley CentreLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Family Practice, The Vancouver Breastfeeding CentreUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Breastfeeding service, Royal Women’s HospitalMelbourneAustralia

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