Breast Cancer in Younger Women

  • Manuela RabaglioEmail author
  • Monica Castiglione


Breast cancer is very rare in young women below the age of 40 years. The estimated incidence is less than 0.2 per 100,000 women below the age of 20 years, increasing to 1.4 in women 20–24 years, 7.7 in women 25–29 years, and 25.5 in women 30–34 years old. Breast cancer in young women presents biological peculiarities compared with tumors in older women: a higher histological grade, no expression of estrogen receptors, and an aggressive growth pattern. The prognosis and survival of young women with breast cancer remains a controversial issue, with several studies showing discordant results. A worse prognosis was shown by some reports, whereas other studies have reported that age is not influencing disease-free or overall survival after adjustment for other prognostic factor. Special care is needed when facing breast cancer in young women. In particular, issues like fertility preservation and contraception, pregnancy after cancer or cancer during pregnancy, sexuality and body image, as well as familial, genetic, and career items are peculiar for young breast cancer patients. Younger women show greater psychological morbidity than older patients. This may be due to the fact that they face a severe disease and a burdensome treatment before they had the time and chance to achieve personal targets and purposes. A special challenging clinical situation is represented by breast cancer occurring during pregnancy because of the complex medical, ethical, and psychological problems arising in this situation.


Breast cancer Young women Pregnancy Fertility 


  1. 1.
    Ries L, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Stinchcomb D, Howlader N, Horner M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. http://seercancergov/csr/1975_2005/, based on Nov 2007 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site. 2008.
  2. 2.
    Bouchardy C, Fioretta G, Verkooijen HM, Vlastos G, Schaefer P, Delaloye JF, et al. Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty. Br J Cancer. 2007;96(11):1743–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Levi F, Te VC, Maspoli M, Randimbison L, Bulliard JL, Vecchia CL. Trends in breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty. Br J Cancer. 2007;97(7):1013–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bodmer A, Feller A, Bordoni A, Bouchardy C, Dehler S, Ess S, et al. Breast cancer in younger women in Switzerland 1996–2009: a longitudinal population-based study. Breast. 2015;24(2):112–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brinton LA, Sherman ME, Carreon JD, Anderson WF. Recent trends in breast cancer among younger women in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(22):1643–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leclère B, Molinié F, Trétarre B, Stracci F, Daubisse-Marliac L, Colonna M. Trends in incidence of breast cancer among women under 40 in seven European countries: a GRELL cooperative study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(5):544–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Merlo DF, Ceppi M, Filiberti R, Bocchini V, Znaor A, Gamulin M, et al. Breast cancer incidence trends in European women aged 20–39 years at diagnosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;134(1):363–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    WHO. WHO World health organization.Mortality database. http://www-depdbiarcfr/who. Accessed 20 Nov 2007.
  9. 9.
    NBCC. NBCC, National Breast Cancer Coalition. Facts about breast cancer in the United States: Year 2007. http://wwwstopbreastcancerorg/bin/indexasp?Strid=427&depid=9&nid=2. Accessed 24 Nov 2007.
  10. 10.
    Albain KS, Allred DC, Clark GM. Breast cancer outcome and predictors of outcome: are there age differentials? J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;16:35–42.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Althuis MD, Brogan DD, Coates RJ, Daling JR, Gammon MD, Malone KE, et al. Breast cancers among very young premenopausal women (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(2):151–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chung M, Chang HR, Bland KI, Wanebo HJ. Younger women with breast carcinoma have a poorer prognosis than older women. Cancer. 1996;77(1):97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Colleoni M, Rotmensz N, Robertson C, Orlando L, Viale G, Renne G, et al. Very young women (<35 years) with operable breast cancer: features of disease at presentation. Ann Oncol. 2002;13(2):273–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maggard MA, O’Connell JB, Lane KE, Liu JH, Etzioni DA, Ko CY. Do young breast cancer patients have worse outcomes? J Surg Res. 2003;113(1):109–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Azim HA Jr, Michiels S, Bedard PL, Singhal SK, Criscitiello C, Ignatiadis M, et al. Elucidating prognosis and biology of breast cancer arising in young women using gene expression profiling. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18(5):1341–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arpino G, Wiechmann L, Osborne CK, Schiff R. Crosstalk between the estrogen receptor and the HER tyrosine kinase receptor family: molecular Mechanism and Clinical Implications for Endocrine Therapy Resistance. Endocr Rev. 2008;29(2):217–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    de la Rochefordiere A, Asselain B, Campana F, Scholl SM, Fenton J, Vilcoq JR, et al. Age as prognostic factor in premenopausal breast carcinoma. Lancet. 1993;341(8852):1039–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lethaby AE, Mason BH, Holdaway IM, Kay RG. Age and ethnicity as prognostic factors influencing overall survival in breast cancer patients in the Auckland region. Auckland Breast Cancer Study Group. NZ Med J. 1992;105(947):485–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nixon AJ, Neuberg D, Hayes DF, Gelman R, Connolly JL, Schnitt S, et al. Relationship of patient age to pathologic features of the tumor and prognosis for patients with stage I or II breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12(5):888–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Swanson GM, Lin CS. Survival patterns among younger women with breast cancer: the effects of age, race, stage, and treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;16:69–77.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vanlemmens L, Hebbar M, Peyrat JP, Bonneterre J. Age as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(3B):1891–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walker RA, Lees E, Webb MB, Dearing SJ. Breast carcinomas occurring in young women (<35 years) are different. Br J Cancer. 1996;74(11):1796–800.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barchielli A, Balzi D. Age at diagnosis, extent of disease and breast cancer survival: a population-based study in Florence, Italy. Tumori. 2000;86(2):119–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crowe JP Jr, Gordon NH, Shenk RR, Zollinger RM Jr, Brumberg DJ, Shuck JM. Age does not predict breast cancer outcome. Arch Surg. 1994;129(5):483–7 (discussion 7–8).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gajdos C, Tartter PI, Bleiweiss IJ, Bodian C, Brower ST. Stage 0 to stage III breast cancer in young women. J Am Coll Surg. 2000;190(5):523–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kroman N, Jensen MB, Wohlfahrt J, Mouridsen HT, Andersen PK, Melbye M. Factors influencing the effect of age on prognosis in breast cancer: population based study. BMJ. 2000;320(7233):474–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Richards MA, Gregory WM, Smith P, Millis RR, Fentiman IS, Rubens RD. Age as prognostic factor in premenopausal breast cancer. Lancet. 1993;341(8858):1484–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Howard-Anderson J, Ganz PA, Bower JE, Stanton AL. Quality of life, fertility concerns, and behavioral health outcomes in younger breast cancer survivors: a systematic review. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(5):386–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Manuel JC, Burwell SR, Crawford SL, Lawrence RH, Farmer DF, Hege A, et al. Younger women’s perceptions of coping with breast cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2007;30(2):85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2012, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD,, based on Nov 2014 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, Apr 2015. Available from:
  31. 31.
    Siegel R, Naishadham D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2013. CA Cancer J Clin. 2013;63(1):11–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tai P, Cserni G, Van De Steene J, Vlastos G, Voordeckers M, Royce M, et al. Modeling the effect of age in T1-2 breast cancer using the SEER database. BMC Cancer. 2005;5:130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fredholm H, Eaker S, Frisell J, Holmberg L, Fredriksson I, Lindman H. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(11):e7695.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rudra S, Yu DS, Yu ES, Switchenko JM, Mister D, Torres MA. Locoregional and distant recurrence patterns in young versus elderly women treated for breast cancer. Int J Breast Cancer. 2015;2015:213123.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dubsky PC, Gnant MF, Taucher S, Roka S, Kandioler D, Pichler-Gebhard B, et al. Young age as an independent adverse prognostic factor in premenopausal patients with breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2002;3(1):65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Han W, Kang SY. Korean Breast Cancer S. Relationship between age at diagnosis and outcome of premenopausal breast cancer: age less than 35 years is a reasonable cut-off for defining young age-onset breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119(1):193–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kim K, Chie EK, Han W, Noh DY, Oh DY, Im SA, et al. Age <40 years is an independent prognostic factor predicting inferior overall survival in patients treated with breast conservative therapy. Breast J. 2011;17(1):75–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cancello G, Maisonneuve P, Rotmensz N, Viale G, Mastropasqua MG, Pruneri G, et al. Prognosis and adjuvant treatment effects in selected breast cancer subtypes of very young women (<35 years) with operable breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(10):1974–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhu W, Perez EA, Hong R, Li Q, Xu B. Age-related disparity in immediate prognosis of patients with triple-negative breast cancer: a population-based study from seer cancer registries. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):e0128345.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Musolino A, Bella MA, Bortesi B, Michiara M, Naldi N, Zanelli P, et al. BRCA mutations, molecular markers, and clinical variables in early-onset breast cancer: a population-based study. Breast. 2007;16(3):280–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peto J, Collins N, Barfoot R, Seal S, Warren W, Rahman N, et al. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in patients with early-onset breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(11):943–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Robson M, Gilewski T, Haas B, Levin D, Borgen P, Rajan P, et al. BRCA-associated breast cancer in young women. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(5):1642–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Turchetti D, Cortesi L, Federico M, Bertoni C, Mangone L, Ferrari S, et al. BRCA1 mutations and clinicopathological features in a sample of Italian women with early-onset breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2000;36(16):2083–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Armes JE, Trute L, White D, Southey MC, Hammet F, Tesoriero A, et al. Distinct molecular pathogeneses of early-onset breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a population-based study. Cancer Res. 1999;59(8):2011–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fackenthal JD, Olopade OI. Breast cancer risk associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in diverse populations. Nat Rev Cancer. 2007;7(12):937–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marcus JN, Watson P, Page DL, Narod SA, Lenoir GM, Tonin P, et al. Hereditary breast cancer: pathobiology, prognosis, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene linkage. Cancer. 1996;77(4):697–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Huzarski T, Byrski T, Gronwald J, Gorski B, Domagala P, Cybulski C, et al. Ten-year survival in patients with BRCA1-negative and BRCA1-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(26):3191–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bernstein L. Epidemiology of endocrine-related risk factors for breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2002;7(1):3–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pike MC, Henderson BE, Krailo MD, Duke A, Roy S. Breast cancer in young women and use of oral contraceptives: possible modifying effect of formulation and age at use. Lancet. 1983;2(8356):926–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ursin G, Ross RK, Sullivan-Halley J, Hanisch R, Henderson B, Bernstein L. Use of oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer in young women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998;50(2):175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cancer CGoHFiB. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Lancet. 1996;347(9017):1713–27.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Charlton BM, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Missmer SA, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE, et al. Oral contraceptive use and mortality after 36 years of follow-up in the Nurses’ health study: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2014;349:g6356.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hannaford PC, Selvaraj S, Elliott AM, Angus V, Iversen L, Lee AJ. Cancer risk among users of oral contraceptives: cohort data from the Royal College of General Practitioner’s oral contraception study. BMJ. 2007;335(7621):651.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, Folger SG, Mandel MG, Daling JR, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(26):2025–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beaber EF, Malone KE, Tang MT, Barlow WE, Porter PL, Daling JR, et al. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk overall and by molecular subtype among young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(5):755–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Figueiredo JC, Bernstein L, Capanu M, Malone KE, Lynch CF, Anton-Culver H, et al. Oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormones, and risk of asynchronous bilateral breast cancer: the WECARE Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(9):1411–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bermejo-Pérez M, Márquez-Calderón S, Llanos-Méndez A. Effectiveness of preventive interventions in BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(2):225–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Figueiredo JC, Haile RW, Bernstein L, Malone KE, Largent J, Langholz B, et al. Oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones and risk of contralateral breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and noncarriers: the WECARE Study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120(1):175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Humans IWGotEoCRt. Pharmaceuticals. Volume 100 A. A review of human carcinogens. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2012;100(Pt A):1–401.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Colditz GA, Feskanich D, Chen WY, Hunter DJ, Willett WC. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Br J Cancer. 2003;89(5):847–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    John EM, Sangaramoorthy M, Hines LM, Stern MC, Baumgartner KB, Giuliano AR, et al. Overall and abdominal adiposity and premenopausal breast cancer risk among hispanic women: the breast cancer health disparities study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015;24(1):138–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    van den Brandt PA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, Adami HO, Beeson L, Folsom AR, et al. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight, and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(6):514–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schernhammer ES. In-utero exposures and breast cancer risk: joint effect of estrogens and insulin-like growth factor? Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(6):505–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Trichopoulos D. Hypothesis: does breast cancer originate in utero? Lancet. 1990;335(8695):939–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Michels KB, Trichopoulos D, Robins JM, Rosner BA, Manson JE, Hunter DJ, et al. Birthweight as a risk factor for breast cancer. Lancet. 1996;348(9041):1542–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Panagiotopoulou K, Katsouyanni K, Petridou E, Garas Y, Tzonou A, Trichopoulos D. Maternal age, parity, and pregnancy estrogens. Cancer Causes Control. 1990;1(2):119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Carmichael A, Sami AS, Dixon JM. Breast cancer risk among the survivors of atomic bomb and patients exposed to therapeutic ionising radiation. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003;29(5):475–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Land CE, Tokunaga M, Koyama K, Soda M, Preston DL, Nishimori I, et al. Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950–1990. Radiat Res. 2003;160(6):707–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pukkala E, Kesminiene A, Poliakov S, Ryzhov A, Drozdovitch V, Kovgan L, et al. Breast cancer in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(3):651–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ogrodnik A, Hudon TW, Nadkarni PM, Chandawarkar RY. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl. Conn Med. 2013;77(4):227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Prysyazhnyuk A, Gristchenko V, Fedorenko Z, Gulak L, Fuzik M, Slipenyuk K, et al. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident: solid cancer incidence in various groups of the Ukrainian population. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2007;46(1):43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Guibout C, Adjadj E, Rubino C, Shamsaldin A, Grimaud E, Hawkins M, et al. Malignant breast tumors after radiotherapy for a first cancer during childhood. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(1):197–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kenney LB, Yasui Y, Inskip PD, Hammond S, Neglia JP, Mertens AC, et al. Breast cancer after childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(8):590–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Korenman SG. The endocrinology of breast cancer. Cancer. 1980;46(4 Suppl):874–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ozasa K, Shimizu Y, Suyama A, Kasagi F, Soda M, Grant EJ, et al. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950–2003: an overview of cancer and noncancer diseases. Radiat Res. 2012;177(3):229–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Little MP. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Journal of radiological protection: official journal of the Society for Radiological Protection. 2009;29(2a):A43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Agnese DM, Yusuf F, Wilson JL, Shapiro CL, Lehman A, Burak WE Jr. Trends in breast cancer presentation and care according to age in a single institution. Am J Surg. 2004;188(4):437–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Foxcroft LM, Evans EB, Porter AJ. The diagnosis of breast cancer in women younger than 40. Breast. 2004;13(4):297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ruddy KJ, Gelber S, Tamimi RM, Schapira L, Come SE, Meyer ME, et al. Breast cancer presentation and diagnostic delays in young women. Cancer. 2014;120(1):20–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Di Nubila B, Cassano E, Urban LABD, Fedele P, Abbate F, Maisonneuve P, et al. Radiological features and pathological-biological correlations in 348 women with breast cancer under 35 years old. Breast. 2006;15(6):744–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kolb TM, Lichy J, Newhouse JH. Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: an analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. Radiology. 2002;225(1):165–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, Harms S, Leach MO, Lehman CD, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007;57(2):75–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Murphy CD, Lee JM, Drohan B, Euhus DM, Kopans DB, Gadd MA, et al. The American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with magnetic resonance imaging: an argument for genetic testing. Cancer. 2008;113(11):3116–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sardanelli F, Boetes C, Borisch B, Decker T, Federico M, Gilbert FJ, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: recommendations from the EUSOMA working group. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(8):1296–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ashley S, Royle GT, Corder A, Herbert A, Guyer PB, Rubin CM, et al. Clinical, radiological and cytological diagnosis of breast cancer in young women. Br J Surg. 1989;76(8):835–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Partridge AH, Hughes ME, Ottesen RA, Wong Y-N, Edge SB, Theriault RL, et al. The effect of age on delay in diagnosis and stage of breast cancer. Oncologist. 2012;17(6):775–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ballard-Barbash R, Taplin SH, Yankaskas BC, Ernster VL, Rosenberg RD, Carney PA, et al. Breast cancer surveillance consortium: a national mammography screening and outcomes database. Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(4):1001–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Buist DSM, Porter PL, Lehman C, Taplin SH, White E. Factors contributing to mammography failure in women aged 40–49 years. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(19):1432–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sardanelli F, Giuseppetti GM, Panizza P, Bazzocchi M, Fausto A, Simonetti G, et al. Sensitivity of MRI versus mammography for detecting foci of multifocal, multicentric breast cancer in fatty and dense breasts using the whole-breast pathologic examination as a gold standard. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183(4):1149–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Warner E, Messersmith H, Causer P, Eisen A, Shumak R, Plewes D. Systematic review: using magnetic resonance imaging to screen women at high risk for breast cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(9):671–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kuhl CK, Schrading S, Leutner CC, Morakkabati-Spitz N, Wardelmann E, Fimmers R, et al. Mammography, breast ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging for surveillance of women at high familial risk for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(33):8469–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Partridge AH, Pagani O, Abulkhair O, Aebi S, Amant F, Azim HA Jr, et al. First international consensus guidelines for breast cancer in young women (BCY1). Breast. 2014;23(3):209–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morrow M, Waters J, Morris E. MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet. 2011;378(9805):1804–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Houssami N, Turner R, Macaskill P, Turnbull LW, McCready DR, Tuttle TM, et al. An individual person data meta-analysis of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and breast cancer recurrence. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(5):392–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Copson E, Eccles B, Maishman T, Gerty S, Stanton L, Cutress RI, et al. Prospective observational study of breast cancer treatment outcomes for UK women aged 18–40 years at diagnosis: the POSH study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105(13):978–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Collins LC, Marotti JD, Gelber S, Cole K, Ruddy K, Kereakoglow S, et al. Pathologic features and molecular phenotype by patient age in a large cohort of young women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;131(3):1061–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Keegan TH, DeRouen MC, Press DJ, Kurian AW, Clarke CA. Occurrence of breast cancer subtypes in adolescent and young adult women. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14(2):R55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Perou CM, Sorlie T, Eisen MB, van de Rijn M, Jeffrey SS, Rees CA, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature. 2000;406(6797):747–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sorlie T, Perou CM, Tibshirani R, Aas T, Geisler S, Johnsen H, et al. Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98(19):10869–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kreike B, van Kouwenhove M, Horlings H, Weigelt B, Peterse H, Bartelink H, et al. Gene expression profiling and histopathological characterization of triple-negative/basal-like breast carcinomas. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9(5):R65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Turner N, Tutt A, Ashworth A. Hallmarks of ‘BRCAness’ in sporadic cancers. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4(10):814–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Anders CK, Hsu DS, Broadwater G, Acharya CR, Foekens JA, Zhang Y, et al. Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defines a subset of breast cancers with shared patterns of gene expression. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(20):3324–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Glas AM, Floore A, Delahaye LJ, Witteveen AT, Pover RC, Bakx N, et al. Converting a breast cancer microarray signature into a high-throughput diagnostic test. BMC Genom. 2006;7:278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Andre F, Pusztai L. Molecular classification of breast cancer: implications for selection of adjuvant chemotherapy. Nat Clin Pract. 2006;3(11):621–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Paik S, Tang G, Shak S, Kim C, Baker J, Kim W, et al. Gene expression and benefit of chemotherapy in women with node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(23):3726–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Phase III Randomized Study of Adjuvant Combination Chemotherapy and Hormonal Therapy Versus Adjuvant Hormonal Therapy Alone in Women With Previously Resected Axillary Node-Negative Breast Cancer With Various Levels of Risk for Recurrence (TAILORx Trial).PDQ: NCT00310180.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sparano JA, Gray RJ, Makower DF, Pritchard KI, Albain KS, Hayes DF, et al. Prospective validation of a 21-gene expression assay in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2015.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    MINDACT (Microarray In Node-negative Disease may Avoid Chemotherapy): A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing the 70-Gene Signature With the Common Clinical-Pathological Criteria in Selecting Patients for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Node-Negative Breast Cancer.PDQ: NCT00433589.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    van de Vijver MJ, He YD, van’t Veer LJ, Dai H, Hart AAM, Voskuil DW, et al. A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;347(25):1999–2009.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Paik S, Shak S, Tang G, Kim C, Baker J, Cronin M, et al. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(27):2817–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shak S. Quantitative gene expression analysis in a large cohort of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancers: characterization of the tumor profiles in younger patients (<40 yrs) and in older patients (>70 yrs) 33rd SABCC2010 Abstract #P3–10-01. 2010.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kim J, Han W, Jung SY, Park YH, Moon HG, Ahn SK, et al. The value of Ki67 in very young women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: retrospective analysis of 9,321 korean women. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22(11):3481–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kurtz JM, Jacquemier J, Amalric R, Brandone H, Ayme Y, Hans D, et al. Why are local recurrences after breast-conserving therapy more frequent in younger patients? J Clin Oncol. 1990;8(4):591–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Voogd AC, Nielsen M, Peterse JL, Blichert-Toft M, Bartelink H, Overgaard M, et al. Differences in risk factors for local and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy for stage I and II breast cancer: pooled results of two large European randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1688–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jobsen JJ, van der Palen J, Meerwaldt JH. The impact of age on local control in women with pT1 breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37(15):1820–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Arriagada R, Le MG, Contesso G, Guinebretiere JM, Rochard F, Spielmann M. Predictive factors for local recurrence in 2006 patients with surgically resected small breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2002;13(9):1404–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kroman N, Holtveg H, Wohlfahrt J, Jensen MB, Mouridsen HT, Blichert-Toft M, et al. Effect of breast-conserving therapy versus radical mastectomy on prognosis for young women with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2004;100(4):688–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mahmood U, Morris C, Neuner G, Koshy M, Kesmodel S, Buras R, et al. Similar survival with breast conservation therapy or mastectomy in the management of young women with early-stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(5):1387–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Vila J, Gandini S, Gentilini O. Overall survival according to type of surgery in young (</=40 years) early breast cancer patients: a systematic meta-analysis comparing breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy. Breast. 2015;24(3):175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Adams BJ, Zoon CK, Stevenson C, Chitnavis P, Wolfe L, Bear HD. The role of margin status and reexcision in local recurrence following breast conservation surgery. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20(7):2250–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    O’Kelly Priddy CM, Forte VA, Lang JE. The importance of surgical margins in breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2015.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Buchholz TA, Somerfield MR, Griggs JJ, El-Eid S, Hammond MEH, Lyman GH, et al. Margins for breast-conserving surgery with whole-breast irradiation in stage i and ii invasive breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Endorsement of the Society of Surgical Oncology/American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(14):1502–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nichols HB, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Lacey JV Jr, Rosenberg PS, Anderson WF. Declining incidence of contralateral breast cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2006. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(12):1564–9.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kurian AW, Lichtensztajn DY, Keegan TH, Nelson DO, Clarke CA, Gomez SL. Use of and mortality after bilateral mastectomy compared with other surgical treatments for breast cancer in California, 1998–2011. JAMA. 2014;312(9):902–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Fisher B, Jeong JH, Anderson S, Bryant J, Fisher ER, Wolmark N. Twenty-five-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, and total mastectomy followed by irradiation. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(8):567–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Mariani L, Greco M, Saccozzi R, Luini A, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast-conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(16):1227–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bartelink H, Horiot JC, Poortmans P, Struikmans H, Van den Bogaert W, Barillot I, et al. Recurrence rates after treatment of breast cancer with standard radiotherapy with or without additional radiation. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(19):1378–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hattangadi-Gluth JA, Wo JY, Nguyen PL, Abi Raad RF, Sreedhara M, Niemierko A, et al. Basal subtype of invasive breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of true recurrence after conventional breast-conserving therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol* Biol* Phys. 2012;82(3):1185–91.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    (EBCTCG) EBCTCG. Effect of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery on 10-year recurrence and 15-year breast cancer death: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10 801 women in 17 randomised trials. Lancet. 2011;378(9804):1707–16.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Donker M, Litière S, Werutsky G, Julien J-P, Fentiman IS, Agresti R, et al. Breast-conserving treatment with or without radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma in situ: 15-year recurrence rates and outcome after a recurrence, from the EORTC 10853 randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(32):4054–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Vrieling C, Collette L, Fourquet A, Hoogenraad WJ, Horiot JC, Jager JJ, et al. Can patient-, treatment- and pathology-related characteristics explain the high local recurrence rate following breast-conserving therapy in young patients? Eur J Cancer. 2003;39(7):932–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bartelink H, Horiot J-C, Poortmans PM, Struikmans H, Van den Bogaert W, Fourquet A, et al. Impact of a higher radiation dose on local control and survival in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer: 10-year results of the randomized boost versus no boost EORTC 22881-10882 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(22):3259–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Institute TNC. Radiation dose intensity study in breast cancer in young women. The Netherlands Cancer Institute. Identifier: NCT00212121.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Beadle BM, Woodward WA, Tucker SL, Outlaw ED, Allen PK, Oh JL, et al. Ten-year recurrence rates in young women with breast cancer by locoregional treatment approach. Int J Radiat Oncol* Biol* Phys. 2009;73(3):734–44.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kroman N, Melbye M, Mouridsen HT. Prognostic influence of age at diagnosis in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Scand J Surg. 2002;91(3):305–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rapiti E, Fioretta G, Verkooijen HM, Vlastos G, Schafer P, Sappino AP, et al. Survival of young and older breast cancer patients in Geneva from 1990 to 2001. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(10):1446–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative G, Peto R, Davies C, Godwin J, Gray R, Pan HC, et al. Comparisons between different polychemotherapy regimens for early breast cancer: meta-analyses of long-term outcome among 100,000 women in 123 randomised trials. Lancet. 2012;379(9814):432–44.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    De Laurentiis M, Cancello G, D’Agostino D, Giuliano M, Giordano A, Montagna E, et al. Taxane-based combinations as adjuvant chemotherapy of early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(1):44–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;365:1687–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early breast cancer. Lancet. 1998;352(9132):930–42.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Berry DA, Cirrincione C, Henderson IC, Citron ML, Budman DR, Goldstein LJ, et al. Estrogen-receptor status and outcomes of modern chemotherapy for patients with node-positive breast cancer. JAMA. 2006;295(14):1658–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Colleoni M, Bonetti M, Coates AS, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD, Price K, et al. Early start of adjuvant chemotherapy may improve treatment outcome for premenopausal breast cancer patients with tumors not expressing estrogen receptors. The International Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(3):584–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Cold S, During M, Ewertz M, Knoop A, Moller S. Does timing of adjuvant chemotherapy influence the prognosis after early breast cancer? Results of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Br J Cancer. 2005;93(6):627–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gagliato Dde M, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Lei X, Theriault RL, Giordano SH, Valero V, et al. Clinical impact of delaying initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(8):735–44.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Oakman C, Viale G, Di Leo A. Management of triple negative breast cancer. Breast. 2010;19(5):312–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cleator S, Heller W, Coombes RC. Triple-negative breast cancer: therapeutic options. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8(3):235–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V. Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry. Cancer. 2007;109(9):1721–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rakha EA, El-Sayed ME, Green AR, Lee AH, Robertson JF, Ellis IO. Prognostic markers in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer. 2007;109(1):25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Tutt A, Ellis P, Kilburn L, et al. The TNT trial: a randomized phase III trial of carboplatin (C) compared with docetaxel (D) for patients with metastatic or recurrent locally advanced triple negative or BRCA1/2 breast cancer (CRUK/07/012). Program and abstracts of the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 9–13 Dec 2014; San Antonio, Texas Abstract S3-01. 2014.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Metzger-Filho O, Tutt A, de Azambuja E, Saini KS, Viale G, Loi S, et al. Dissecting the heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15):1879–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Goldhirsch A, Glick JH, Gelber RD, Coates AS, Thurlimann B, Senn HJ. Meeting highlights: international expert consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer 2005. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(10):1569–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Coates AS, Winer EP, Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Gnant M, Piccart-Gebhart M, et al. Tailoring therapies-improving the management of early breast cancer: St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2015. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(8):1533–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Davies C, Godwin J, Gray R, Clarke M, Cutter D, Darby S, et al. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2011;378(9793):771–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Davies C, Pan H, Godwin J, Gray R, Arriagada R, Raina V, et al. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9869):805–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Burstein HJ, Temin S, Anderson H, Buchholz TA, Davidson NE, Gelmon KE, et al. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline focused update. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(21):2255–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Arriagada R, Le MG, Spielmann M, Mauriac L, Bonneterre J, Namer M, et al. Randomized trial of adjuvant ovarian suppression in 926 premenopausal patients with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(3):389–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Davidson NE, O’Neill AM, Vukov AM, Osborne CK, Martino S, White DR, et al. Chemoendocrine therapy for premenopausal women with axillary lymph node-positive, steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: results from INT 0101 (E5188). J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(25):5973–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Trudeau M, Hood N. Risk of menopause during the first year after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(8):2365–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Petrek JA, Naughton MJ, Case LD, Paskett ED, Naftalis EZ, Singletary SE, et al. Incidence, time course, and determinants of menstrual bleeding after breast cancer treatment: a prospective study. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(7):1045–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Castiglione-Gertsch M, O’Neill A, Price KN, Goldhirsch A, Coates AS, Colleoni M, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy followed by goserelin versus either modality alone for premenopausal lymph node-negative breast cancer: a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(24):1833–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ejlertsen B, Mouridsen HT, Jensen MB, Bengtsson NO, Bergh J, Cold S, et al. Similar efficacy for ovarian ablation compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil: from a randomized comparison of premenopausal patients with node-positive, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(31):4956–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Jakesz R, Hausmaninger H, Kubista E, Gnant M, Menzel C, Bauernhofer T, et al. Randomized adjuvant trial of tamoxifen and goserelin versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil: evidence for the superiority of treatment with endocrine blockade in premenopausal patients with hormone—responsive breast cancer—Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 5. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(24):4621–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Jonat W, Kaufmann M, Sauerbrei W, Blamey R, Cuzick J, Namer M, et al. Goserelin versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: The Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association Study. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(24):4628–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Roché H, Kerbrat P, Bonneterre J, Fargeot P, Fumoleau P, Monnier A, et al. Complete hormonal blockade versus epirubicin-based chemotherapy in premenopausal, one to three node-positive, and hormone-receptor positive, early breast cancer patients: 7-year follow-up results of French Adjuvant Study Group 06 randomised trial. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(8):1221–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Roché H, Mihura J, de Lafontan B, Reme-Saumon M, Martel P, Dubois J, et al. Castration and tamoxifen vs chemotherapy (FAC) for premenopausal, node and receptors positive breast cancer patients: a randomized trial with a 7 years follow-up. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1996;15:117.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Schmid P, Untch M, Kosse V, Bondar G, Vassiljev L, Tarutinov V, et al. Leuprorelin acetate every-3-months depot versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: the TABLE study. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(18):2509–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Scottish Cancer Trials Breast Group and ICRF Breast Unit. Adjuvant ovarian ablation versus CMF chemotherapy in premenopausal women with pathological stage II breast carcinoma: the Scottish trial. Lancet. 1993;341:1293–8.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    von Minckwitz G, Graf E, Geberth M, Eiermann W, Jonat W, Conrad B, et al. CMF versus goserelin as adjuvant therapy for node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in premenopausal patients: a randomised trial (GABG trial IV-A-93). Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(12):1780–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Klijn JG, Blamey RW, Boccardo F, Tominaga T, Duchateau L, Sylvester R. Combined tamoxifen and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist versus LHRH agonist alone in premenopausal advanced breast cancer: a meta-analysis of four randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(2):343–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Baum M, Hackshaw A, Houghton J, Rutqvist Fornander T, Nordenskjold B, et al. Adjuvant goserelin in pre-menopausal patients with early breast cancer: results from the ZIPP study. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(7):895–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Robert N, Wang M, Cella D, Martino S, Tripathy D, Ingle J, et al. Phase III comparison of tamoxifen versus tamoxifen with ovarian ablation in premenopausal women with axillary node-negative receptor-positive breast cancer <= 3 cm. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2003;22:5.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Francis PA, Regan MM, Fleming GF, Lang I, Ciruelos E, Bellet M, et al. Adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(5):436–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Smith IE, Dowsett M, Yap YS, Walsh G, Lonning PE, Santen RJ, et al. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer after chemotherapy-induced amenorrhoea: caution and suggested guidelines. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(16):2444–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Oktay K, Buyuk E, Libertella N, Akar M, Rosenwaks Z. Fertility preservation in breast cancer patients: a prospective controlled comparison of ovarian stimulation with tamoxifen and letrozole for embryo cryopreservation. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(19):4347–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Oktay K, Hourvitz A, Sahin G, Oktem O, Safro B, Cil A, et al. Letrozole reduces estrogen and gonadotropin exposure in women with breast cancer undergoing ovarian stimulation before chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(10):3885–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Gnant M, Mlineritsch B, Stoeger H, Luschin-Ebengreuth G, Knauer M, Moik M, et al. Zoledronic acid combined with adjuvant endocrine therapy of tamoxifen versus anastrozol plus ovarian function suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer: final analysis of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 12. Ann Oncol. 2015;26(2):313–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pagani O, Regan MM, Walley BA, Fleming GF, Colleoni M, Lang I, et al. Adjuvant exemestane with ovarian suppression in premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(2):107–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Forward DP, Cheung KL, Jackson L, Robertson JF. Clinical and endocrine data for goserelin plus anastrozole as second-line endocrine therapy for premenopausal advanced breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;90(3):590–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Torrisi R, Bagnardi V, Pruneri G, Ghisini R, Bottiglieri L, Magni E, et al. Antitumour and biological effects of letrozole and GnRH analogue as primary therapy in premenopausal women with ER and PgR positive locally advanced operable breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2007;97(6):802–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bartsch R, Bago-Horvath Z, Berghoff A, DeVries C, Pluschnig U, Dubsky P, et al. Ovarian function suppression and fulvestrant as endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(13):1932–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kute T, Lack CM, Willingham M, Bishwokama B, Williams H, Barrett K, et al. Development of Herceptin resistance in breast cancer cells. Cytometry Part A. 2004;57A(2):86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Albanell J, Codony J, Rovira A, Mellado B, Gascon P. Mechanism of action of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies: scientific update on trastuzumab and 2C4. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;532:253–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, Fuchs H, Paton V, Bajamonde A, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(11):783–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P-L, Bono P, Alanko T, Kataja V, Asola R, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(8):809–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Procter M, Leyland-Jones B, Goldhirsch A, Untch M, Smith I, et al. Trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(16):1659–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Robert N, Eiermann W, Pienkowski T, Crown J, Martin M, Pawlicki M, et al. BCIRG 006: Docetaxel and trastuzumab-based regimens improve DFS and OS over AC-T in node positive and high risk node negative HER2 positive early breast cancer patients: Quality of life (QOL) at 36 months follow-up. J Clin Oncol (ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings Part I). 2007;25(June 20 Supplement):18S.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE Jr, Davidson NE, et al. Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(16):1673–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Slamon D, Eiermann W, Robert N, Pienkowski T, Martin M, Press M, et al. Adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(14):1273–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Smith I, Procter M, Gelber RD, Guillaume S, Feyereislova A, Dowsett M, et al. 2-year follow-up of trastuzumab after adjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9555):29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, de Azambuja E, Procter M, Suter TM, et al. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013;382(9897):1021–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Perez EA, Romond EH, Suman VJ, Jeong J-H, Davidson NE, Geyer CE, et al. Four-year follow-up of trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer: joint analysis of data from NCCTG N9831 and NSABP B-31. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(25):3366–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Joensuu H, Bono P, Kataja V, Alanko T, Kokko R, Asola R, et al. Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide with either docetaxel or vinorelbine, with or without trastuzumab, as adjuvant treatments of breast cancer: final results of the FinHer trial. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(34):5685–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pivot X, Romieu G, Debled M, Pierga J-Y, Kerbrat P, Bachelot T, et al. 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer (PHARE): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(8):741–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Zardavas D, Fouad TM, Piccart M. Optimal adjuvant treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in 2015. Breast. 2015.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Partridge AH, Gelber S, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Focant F, Scullion M, Holmes E, et al. Effect of age on breast cancer outcomes in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: results from a herceptin adjuvant trial. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(21):2692–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Agus DB, Gordon MS, Taylor C, Natale RB, Karlan B, Mendelson DS, et al. Phase I clinical study of pertuzumab, a novel HER dimerization inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(11):2534–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Baselga J, Cortés J, Kim S-B, Im S-A, Hegg R, Im Y-H, et al. Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab plus docetaxel for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(2):109–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Swain SM, Kim SB, Cortés J, Ro J, Semiglazov V, Campone M, et al. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (CLEOPATRA study): overall survival results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(6):461–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Verma S, Miles D, Gianni L, Krop IE, Welslau M, Baselga J, et al. Trastuzumab emtansine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(19):1783–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Krop IE, Kim SB, González-Martín A, LoRusso PM, Ferrero JM, Smitt M, et al. Trastuzumab emtansine versus treatment of physician’s choice for pretreated HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (TH3RESA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(7):689–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez E, et al. A randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel versus paclitaxel plus bevacizumab as first-line therapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: a trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2100). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;94(Suppl 1):3.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Miller KD, Chap LI, Holmes FA, Cobleigh MA, Marcom PK, Fehrenbacher L, et al. Randomized phase III trial of capecitabine compared with bevacizumab plus capecitabine in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(4):792–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez EA, et al. Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(26):2666–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Cameron D, Brown J, Dent R, Jackisch C, Mackey J, Pivot X, et al. Adjuvant bevacizumab-containing therapy in triple-negative breast cancer (BEATRICE): primary results of a randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(10):933–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gianni L, Romieu GH, Lichinitser M, Serrano SV, Mansutti M, Pivot X, et al. AVEREL: a randomized phase iii trial evaluating bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel and trastuzumab as first-line therapy for HER2-positive locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(14):1719–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Slamon D, Swain S, Buyse M, Martin M, Geyer CE, Im YH, et al. BETH: a randomized phase III study evaluating adjuvant bevacizumab added to trastuzumab/chemotherapy for treatment of HER2þEarly breast Cancer. Presented at SABCS. 2013.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Spector NL, Xia W, Burris H 3rd, Hurwitz H, Dees EC, Dowlati A, et al. Study of the biologic effects of lapatinib, a reversible inhibitor of ErbB1 and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, on tumor growth and survival pathways in patients with advanced malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(11):2502–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Geyer CE, Forster J, Lindquist D, Chan S, Romieu CG, Pienkowski T, et al. Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(26):2733–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bendell JC, Domchek SM, Burstein HJ, Harris L, Younger J, Kuter I, et al. Central nervous system metastases in women who receive trastuzumab-based therapy for metastatic breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97(12):2972–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Clayton AJ, Danson S, Jolly S, Ryder WD, Burt PA, Stewart AL, et al. Incidence of cerebral metastases in patients treated with trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;91(4):639–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Lin NU, Winer EP. Brain metastases: the HER2 paradigm. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13(6):1648–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lin NU, Carey LA, Liu MC, Younger J, Come SE, Ewend M, et al. Phase II trial of lapatinib for brain metastases in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2—positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(12):1993–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Piccart-Gebhart MJ, Holmes AP, Baselga J, De Azambuja E, Dueck AC, Viale G, et al. First results from the phase III ALTTO trial (BIG 2-06; NCCTG [Alliance] N063D) comparing one year of anti-HER2 therapy with lapatinib alone (L), trastuzumab alone (T), their sequence (T → L), or their combination (T + L) in the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC). ASCO Meeting Abstracts. 2014;32(18_suppl):LBA4.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Piccart M, Hortobagyi GN, Campone M, Pritchard KI, Lebrun F, Ito Y, et al. Everolimus plus exemestane for hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative advanced breast cancer: overall survival results from BOLERO-2dagger. Ann Oncol. 2014;25(12):2357–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Health. UNIo. Available from: Clinicaltrials gov. Accessed 15 Oct 2015.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Puma Biotechnology I. Study in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer (ExteNET). Available from: http://clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00878709. 2015.
  217. 217.
    Osborne CK, Shou J, Massarweh S, Schiff R. Crosstalk between estrogen receptor and growth factor receptor pathways as a cause for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(2):865s–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Milano A, Dal Lago L, Sotiriou C, Piccart M, Cardoso F. What clinicians need to know about antioestrogen resistance in breast cancer therapy. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42(16):2692–705.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Zilli M, Grassadonia A, Tinari N, Di Giacobbe A, Gildetti S, Giampietro J, et al. Molecular mechanisms of endocrine resistance and their implication in the therapy of breast cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Rev Cancer. 2009;1795(1):62–81.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Giuliano M, Schiff R, Osborne CK, Trivedi MV. Biological mechanisms and clinical implications of endocrine resistance in breast cancer. Breast. 20(Supplement 3):S42–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Jordan VC, Obiorah I, Fan P, Kim HR, Ariazi E, Cunliffe H, et al. The St. Gallen Prize lecture 2011: evolution of long-term adjuvant anti-hormone therapy: consequences and opportunities. Breast. 2011;20(Supplement 3):S1–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Iglehart JD, Silver DP. Synthetic lethality—a new direction in cancer-drug development. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(2):189–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Farmer H, McCabe N, Lord CJ, Tutt AN, Johnson DA, Richardson TB, et al. Targeting the DNA repair defect in BRCA mutant cells as a therapeutic strategy. Nature. 2005;434(7035):917–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Fong PC, Boss DS, Yap TA, Tutt A, Wu P, Mergui-Roelvink M, et al. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(2):123–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Tutt A, Robson M, Garber JE, Domchek SM, Audeh MW, Weitzel JN, et al. Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and advanced breast cancer: a proof-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9737):235–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Dent RA, Lindeman GJ, Clemons M, Wildiers H, Chan A, McCarthy NJ, et al. Phase I trial of the oral PARP inhibitor olaparib in combination with paclitaxel for first- or second-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(5):R88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Matulonis U, Wulf GM, Birrer MJ, Westin SN, Quy P, Bell-McGuinn KM, Lasonde B, Whalen C, Aghajanian C, Solit DB, Mills GB, Cantley L, Winer EP. Phase I study of oral BKM120 and oral olaparib for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:5s (suppl; abstr 2510).Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Peoples G, Khoo S, Dehqanzada Z, Mittendorf E, Hueman M, Gurney J, et al. Combined clinical trial results of a HER2/neu (E75) vaccine for prevention of recurrence in high-risk breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;1:S6.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Curigliano G, Spitaleri G, Pietri E, Rescigno M, de Braud F, Cardillo A, et al. Breast cancer vaccines: a clinical reality or fairy tale? Ann Oncol. 2006;17(5):750–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Criscitiello C, Curigliano G. Immunotherapy of breast cancer. Progr Tumor Res. 2015;42:30–43.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Cardoso F, Loibl S, Pagani O, Graziottin A, Panizza P, Martincich L, et al. The European Society of breast cancer specialists recommendations for the management of young women with breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(18):3355–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Pagani O, Senkus E, Wood W, Colleoni M, Cufer T, Kyriakides S, et al. International guidelines for management of metastatic breast cancer: can metastatic breast cancer be cured? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(7):456–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Michaud LB, Jones KL, Buzdar AU. Combination endocrine therapy in the management of breast cancer. Oncologist. 2001;6(6):538–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Carlson RW, Theriault R, Schurman CM, Rivera E, Chung CT, Phan SC, et al. Phase II trial of anastrozole plus goserelin in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, metastatic carcinoma of the breast in premenopausal women. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(25):3917–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Turner NC, Ro J, André F, Loi S, Verma S, Iwata H, et al. Palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(3):209–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Cardoso F, Bedard PL, Winer EP, Pagani O, Senkus-Konefka E, Fallowfield LJ, et al. International guidelines for management of metastatic breast cancer: combination vs sequential single-agent chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(17):1174–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Brewer VH, Hahn KA, Rohrbach BW, Bell JL, Baddour LM. Risk factor analysis for breast cellulitis complicating breast conservation therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(3):654–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Indelicato DJ, Grobmyer SR, Newlin H, Morris CG, Haigh LS, Copeland EM 3rd, et al. Delayed breast cellulitis: an evolving complication of breast conservation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66(5):1339–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Simon MS, Cody RL. Cellulitis after axillary lymph node dissection for carcinoma of the breast. Am J Med. 1992;93(5):543–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Petrek JA, Peters MM, Nori S, Knauer C, Kinne DW, Rogatko A. Axillary lymphadenectomy. A prospective, randomized trial of 13 factors influencing drainage, including early or delayed arm mobilization. Arch Surg. 1990;125(3):378–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Jamison K, Wellisch DK, Katz RL, Pasnau RO. Phantom breast syndrome. Arch Surg. 1979;114(1):93–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Guerreiro Godoy MD, Pereira de Godoy AC, Matos MJ, Guimarães TD, Barufi S. Phantom breast syndrome in women after mastectomy. Breast J. 2013;19(3):349–50.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Pereira S, Fontes F, Sonin T, Dias T, Fragoso M, Castro-Lopes JM, et al. Neurological complications of breast cancer: a prospective cohort study. Breast. 2015;24(5):582–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Nesvold IL, Dahl AA, Lokkevik E, Marit Mengshoel A, Fossa SD. Arm and shoulder morbidity in breast cancer patients after breast-conserving therapy versus mastectomy. Acta Oncol. 2008;47(5):835–42.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Stubblefield MD, Keole N. Upper body pain and functional disorders in patients with breast cancer. PM&R. 2014;6(2):170–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Ganz PA, Kwan L, Stanton AL, Krupnick JL, Rowland JH, Meyerowitz BE, et al. Quality of life at the end of primary treatment of breast cancer: first results from the moving beyond cancer randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(5):376–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Knobf MT. The influence of endocrine effects of adjuvant therapy on quality of life outcomes in younger breast cancer survivors. Oncologist. 2006;11(2):96–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Leining MG, Gelber S, Rosenberg R, Przypyszny M, Winer EP, Partridge AH. Menopausal-type symptoms in young breast cancer survivors. Ann Oncol. 2006;17(12):1777–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Mar Fan HG, Houede-Tchen N, Chemerynsky I, Yi QL, Xu W, Harvey B, et al. Menopausal symptoms in women undergoing chemotherapy-induced and natural menopause: a prospective controlled study. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(5):983–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Bernhard J, Luo W, Ribi K, Colleoni M, Burstein HJ, Tondini C, et al. Patient-reported outcomes with adjuvant exemestane versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing ovarian suppression (TEXT and SOFT): a combined analysis of two phase 3 randomised trials. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(7):848–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Sverrisdottir A, Fornander T, Jacobsson H, von Schoultz E, Rutqvist LE. Bone mineral density among premenopausal women with early breast cancer in a randomized trial of adjuvant endocrine therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(18):3694–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Vehmanen L, Elomaa I, Blomqvist C, Saarto T. Tamoxifen treatment after adjuvant chemotherapy has opposite effects on bone mineral density in premenopausal patients depending on menstrual status. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(4):675–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Rocca WA, Bower JH, Maraganore DM, Ahlskog JE, Grossardt BR, de Andrade M, et al. Increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause. Neurology. 2007;69(11):1074–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Rocca WA, Bower JH, Maraganore DM, Ahlskog JE, Grossardt BR, de Andrade M, et al. Increased risk of parkinsonism in women who underwent oophorectomy before menopause. Neurology. 2008;70(3):200–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Phillips K, Feng Y, Ribi K, Bernhard J, Puglisi F, Bellet M, et al. Co-SOFT: the cognitive function sub-study of the suppression of ovarian function trial (soft). San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 9–13 Dec 2014; Poster P1-12-01/Abstract 844.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(26):1997–2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Hars V, Conaway MR, Havlin K, Rimer BK, McElveen G, et al. Reduced rates of metabolism and decreased physical activity in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(5):1495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Winer EP, Rimer BK. Why women gain weight with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11(7):1418–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Bines J, Oleske DM, Cobleigh MA. Ovarian function in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14(5):1718–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Del Mastro L, Venturini M, Sertoli MR, Rosso R. Amenorrhea induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer patients: prognostic role and clinical implications. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1997;43(2):183–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Hortobagyi GN, Buzdar AU, Marcus CE, Smith TL. Immediate and long-term toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy regimens containing doxorubicin in trials at M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. NCI Monogr. 1986;1:105–9.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Sainsbury JRC, Anderson TJ, Morgan DAL. ABC of breast diseases: breast cancer. BMJ. 2000;321(7263):745–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Bentzen S, Overgaard J. Patient-to-patient variability in the expression of radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Semin Radiat Oncol. 1994;4(2):68–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Lilla C, Ambrosone C, Kropp S, Helmbold I, Schmezer P, von Fournier D, et al. Predictive factors for late normal tissue complications following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;106(1):143–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Kraus-Tiefenbacher U, Sfintizky A, Welzel G, Simeonova A, Sperk E, Siebenlist K, et al. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). Radiat Oncol (London, England). 2012;7:217.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Bird BRJH, Swain SM. Cardiac toxicity in breast cancer survivors: review of potential cardiac problems. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(1):14–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Jones LW, Haykowsky MJ, Swartz JJ, Douglas PS, Mackey JR. Early breast cancer therapy and cardiovascular injury. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50(15):1435–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Perez EA, Suman VJ, Davidson NE, Kaufman PA, Martino S, Dakhil SR, et al. Effect of doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide on left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with breast cancer in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 Intergroup Adjuvant Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(18):3700–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Monroe AT, Feigenberg SJ, Price Mendenhall N. Angiosarcoma after breast-conserving therapy. Cancer. 2003;97(8):1832–40.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Togawa K, Ma H, Sullivan-Halley J, Neuhouser ML, Imayama I, Baumgartner KB, et al. Risk factors for self-reported arm lymphedema among female breast cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res. 2014;16(4):414.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Osteen RT, Cady B, Friedman M, Kraybill W, Doggett S, Hussey D, et al. Patterns of care for younger women with breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;16:43–6.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Pain SJ, Purushotham AD. Lymphoedema following surgery for breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2000;87(9):1128–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Perbeck L, Celebioglu F, Svensson L, Danielsson R. Lymph circulation in the breast after radiotherapy and breast conservation. Lymphology. 2006;39(1):33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Senkus-Konefka E, Jassem J. Complications of breast-cancer radiotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2006;18(3):229–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Khatcheressian JL, Hurley P, Bantug E, Esserman LJ, Grunfeld E, Halberg F, et al. Breast cancer follow-up and management after primary treatment: american society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(7):961–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Nelson HD, Fu R, Goddard K, Mitchell JP, Okinaka-Hu L, Pappas M, et al. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force evidence syntheses, formerly systematic evidence reviews. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer: systematic review to update the US preventive services Task Force Recommendation. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), Rockville (MD). 2013.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Roche N. Follow-up after treatment for breast cancer in young women. Breast. 2006;15(Suppl 2):S71–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Pruthi S, Simon JA, Early AP. Current overview of the management of urogenital atrophy in women with breast cancer. Breast J. 2011;17(4):403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Krychman ML, Stelling CJ, Carter J, Hudis CA. A case series of androgen use in breast cancer survivors with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2007;4(6):1769–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Hayes DF. Follow-up of patients with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(24):2505–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Hojan K, Milecki P, Molińska-Glura M, Roszak A, Leszczyński P. Effect of physical activity on bone strength and body composition in breast cancer premenopausal women during endocrine therapy. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2013;49(3):331–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Schover LR. Psychosocial aspects of infertility and decisions about reproduction in young cancer survivors: a review. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999;33(1):53–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wenzel L, Dogan-Ates A, Habbal R, Berkowitz R, Goldstein DP, Bernstein M, et al. Defining and measuring reproductive concerns of female cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2005;34:94–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Partridge AH, Gelber S, Peppercorn J, Sampson E, Knudsen K, Laufer M, et al. Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(20):4174–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Ganz PA, Greendale GA, Petersen L, Kahn B, Bower JE. Breast cancer in younger women: reproductive and late health effects of treatment. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(22):4184–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Thewes B, Meiser B, Taylor A, Phillips KA, Pendlebury S, Capp A, et al. Fertility- and menopause-related information needs of younger women with a diagnosis of early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(22):5155–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Braun M, Hasson-Ohayon I, Perry S, Kaufman B, Uziely B. Motivation for giving birth after breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2005;14(4):282–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Loren AW, Mangu PB, Beck LN, Brennan L, Magdalinski AJ, Partridge AH, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(19):2500–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Coulam C. Neuroendocrinology and ovarian function. In: Scott JR, DiSaia PJ, Hammond CB, et al., editors. Danforth’s obstetrics and gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990. p. 57–73.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Wallace WH, Kelsey TW. Human ovarian reserve from conception to the menopause. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(1):e8772.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Walshe JM, Denduluri N, Swain SM. Amenorrhea in premenopausal women after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(36):5769–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Parulekar WR, Day AG, Ottaway JA, Shepherd LE, Trudeau ME, Bramwell V, et al. Incidence and prognostic impact of amenorrhea during adjuvant therapy in high-risk premenopausal breast cancer: analysis of a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Study–NCIC CTG MA.5. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(25):6002–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Stearns V, Schneider B, Henry NL, Hayes DF, Flockhart DA. Breast cancer treatment and ovarian failure: risk factors and emerging genetic determinants. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6(11):886–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Sutton R, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN. Pregnancy and offspring after adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Cancer. 1990;65(4):847–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Peccatori FA, Pup LD, Salvagno F, Guido M, Sarno MA, Revelli A, et al. Fertility preservation methods in breast cancer. Breast care (Basel, Switzerland). 2012;7(3):197–202.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Del Mastro L, Lambertini M. Temporary ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist during chemotherapy for fertility preservation: toward the end of the debate? Oncologist. 2015.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Moore HC, Unger JM, Phillips KA, Boyle F, Hitre E, Porter D, et al. Goserelin for ovarian protection during breast-cancer adjuvant chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(10):923–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Gerber B, von Minckwitz G, Stehle H, Reimer T, Felberbaum R, Maass N, et al. Effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist on ovarian function after modern adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy: the GBG 37 ZORO study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(17):2334–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Behringer K, Breuer K, Reineke T, May M, Nogova L, Klimm B, et al. Secondary amenorrhea after Hodgkin’s lymphoma is influenced by age at treatment, stage of disease, chemotherapy regimen, and the use of oral contraceptives during therapy: a report from the German Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(30):7555–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Chapman RM, Sutcliffe SB. Protection of ovarian function by oral contraceptives in women receiving chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s disease. Blood. 1981;58(4):849–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Azim A, Oktay K. Letrozole for ovulation induction and fertility preservation by embryo cryopreservation in young women with endometrial carcinoma. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(3):657–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Azim AA, Costantini-Ferrando M, Oktay K. Safety of fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation with letrozole and gonadotropins in patients with breast cancer: a prospective controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(16):2630–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Oktay K. Further evidence on the safety and success of ovarian stimulation with letrozole and tamoxifen in breast cancer patients undergoing in vitro fertilization to cryopreserve their embryos for fertility preservation. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(16):3858–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Oktay K, Turan V, Bedoschi G, Pacheco FS, Moy F. Fertility preservation success subsequent to concurrent aromatase inhibitor treatment and ovarian stimulation in women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(22):2424–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Oktay K, Cil AP, Bang H. Efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(1):70–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Grifo JA, Noyes N. Delivery rate using cryopreserved oocytes is comparable to conventional in vitro fertilization using fresh oocytes: potential fertility preservation for female cancer patients. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(2):391–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Borini A, Bianchi V, Bonu MA, Sciajno R, Sereni E, Cattoli M, et al. Evidence-based clinical outcome of oocyte slow cooling. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15(2):175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Kuwayama M. Highly efficient vitrification for cryopreservation of human oocytes and embryos: the Cryotop method. Theriogenology. 2007;67(1):73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Noyes N, Porcu E, Borini A. Over 900 oocyte cryopreservation babies born with no apparent increase in congenital anomalies. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18(6):769–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    von Wolff M, Nitzschke M, Stute P, Bitterlich N, Rohner S. Low-dosage clomiphene reduces premature ovulation rates and increases transfer rates in natural-cycle IVF. Reprod Biomed Online. 2014;29(2):209–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Meirow D, Baum M, Yaron R, Levron J, Hardan I, Schiff E, et al. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation in hematologic malignancy: ten years’ experience. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48(8):1569–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Poirot C, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Helardot P, Guibert J, Brugieres L, Jouannet P. Human ovarian tissue cryopreservation: indications and feasibility. Human Reprod (Oxford, England). 2002;17(6):1447–52.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Newton H. The cryopreservation of ovarian tissue as a strategy for preserving the fertility of cancer patients. Human Reprod Update. 1998;4(3):237–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Oktay K, Karlikaya G. Ovarian function after transplantation of frozen, banked autologous ovarian tissue. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(25):1919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Oktay K, Buyuk E, Rosenwaks Z, Rucinski J. A technique for transplantation of ovarian cortical strips to the forearm. Fertil Steril. 2003;80(1):193–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Oktay K, Buyuk E, Veeck L, Zaninovic N, Xu K, Takeuchi T, et al. Embryo development after heterotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet. 2004;363(9412):837–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Radford JA, Lieberman BA, Brison DR, Smith AR, Critchlow JD, Russell SA, et al. Orthotopic reimplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortical strips after high-dose chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Lancet. 2001;357(9263):1172–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Tryde Schmidt KL, Yding Andersen C, Starup J, Loft A, Byskov AG, Nyboe Andersen A. Orthotopic autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue to a woman cured of cancer—follicular growth, steroid production and oocyte retrieval. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;8(4):448–53.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Donnez J, Dolmans M-M, Pellicer A, Diaz-Garcia C, Sanchez Serrano M, Schmidt KT, et al. Restoration of ovarian activity and pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue: a review of 60 cases of reimplantation. Fertil Steril. 2013;99(6):1503–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Kim SS, Radford J, Harris M, Varley J, Rutherford AJ, Lieberman B, et al. Ovarian tissue harvested from lymphoma patients to preserve fertility may be safe for autotransplantation. Human Reprod (Oxford, England). 2001;16(10):2056–60.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Sonmezer M, Shamonki MI, Oktay K. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: benefits and risks. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;322(1):125–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Gelber S, Coates AS, Goldhirsch A, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Marini G, Lindtner J, et al. Effect of pregnancy on overall survival after the diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(6):1671–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Loibl S, Kohl J, Kaufmann M. Reproduction after breast cancer: what advice do we have for our patients? Zentralbl Gynakol. 2005;127(3):120–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Pagani O, Ruggeri M, Manunta S, Saunders C, Peccatori F, Cardoso F, et al. Pregnancy after breast cancer: are young patients willing to participate in clinical studies? Breast. 2015;24(3):201–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Antonelli NM, Dotters DJ, Katz VL, Kuller JA. Cancer in pregnancy: a review of the literature. Part II. Obstet Gynecol Survey. 1996;51(2):135–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Antonelli NM, Dotters DJ, Katz VL, Kuller JA. Cancer in pregnancy: a review of the literature. Part I. Obstet Gynecol Survey. 1996;51(2):125–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Berry DL, Theriault RL, Holmes FA, Parisi VM, Booser DJ, Singletary SE, et al. Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17(3):855–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Wallack MK, Wolf JA Jr, Bedwinek J, Denes AE, Glasgow G, Kumar B, et al. Gestational carcinoma of the female breast. Curr Probl Cancer. 1983;7(9):1–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Anderson BO, Petrek JA, Byrd DR, Senie RT, Borgen PI. Pregnancy influences breast cancer stage at diagnosis in women 30 years of age and younger. Ann Surg Oncol. 1996;3(2):204–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Albrektsen G, Heuch I, Kvale G. The short-term and long-term effect of a pregnancy on breast cancer risk: a prospective study of 802,457 parous Norwegian women. Br J Cancer. 1995;72(2):480–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Lambe M, Hsieh C, Trichopoulos D, Ekbom A, Pavia M, Adami HO. Transient increase in the risk of breast cancer after giving birth. N Engl J Med. 1994;331(1):5–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Wohlfahrt J, Andersen PK, Mouridsen HT, Melbye M. Risk of late-stage breast cancer after a childbirth. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(11):1079–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Cullinane CA, Lubinski J, Neuhausen SL, Ghadirian P, Lynch HT, Isaacs C, et al. Effect of pregnancy as a risk factor for breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Int J Cancer. 2005;117(6):988–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Ishida T, Yokoe T, Kasumi F, Sakamoto G, Makita M, Tominaga T, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer patients associated with pregnancy and lactation: analysis of case-control study in Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1992;83(11):1143–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Shen T, Vortmeyer AO, Zhuang Z, Tavassoli FA. High frequency of allelic loss of BRCA2 gene in pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(19):1686–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Johannsson O, Loman N, Borg A, Olsson H. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers. Lancet. 1998;352(9137):1359–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Amant F, Deckers S, Van Calsteren K, Loibl S, Halaska M, Brepoels L, et al. Breast cancer in pregnancy: recommendations of an international consensus meeting. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(18):3158–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Loibl S, von Minckwitz G, Gwyn K, Ellis P, Blohmer JU, Schlegelberger B, et al. Breast carcinoma during pregnancy. Cancer. 2006;106(2):237–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Loibl S, Schmidt A, Gentilini O, Kaufman B, Kuhl C, Denkert C, et al. Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy: adapting recent advances in breast cancer care for pregnant patients. JAMA oncology. 2015.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Saber A, Dardik H, Ibrahim IM, Wolodiger F. The milk rejection sign: a natural tumor marker. Am Surg. 1996;62(12):998–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Liberman L, Giess CS, Dershaw DD, Deutch BM, Petrek JA. Imaging of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Radiology. 1994;191(1):245–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Ahn BY, Kim HH, Moon WK, Pisano ED, Kim HS, Cha ES, et al. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated breast cancer: mammographic and sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med. 2003;22(5):491–7; quiz 8–9.Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Yang WT, Dryden MJ, Gwyn K, Whitman GJ, Theriault R. Imaging of breast cancer diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy. Radiology. 2006;239(1):52–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Barthelmes L, Davidson LA, Gaffney C, Gateley CA. Pregnancy and breast cancer. BMJ. 2005;330(7504):1375–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Nettleton J, Long J, Kuban D, Wu R, Shaefffer J, El-Mahdi A. Breast cancer during pregnancy: quantifying the risk of treatment delay. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;87(3):414–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Collins JC, Liao S, Wile AG. Surgical management of breast masses in pregnant women. J Reprod Med. 1995;40(11):785–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Azim HA Jr, Santoro L, Russell-Edu W, Pentheroudakis G, Pavlidis N, Peccatori FA. Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 30 studies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012;38(7):834–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Amant F, von Minckwitz G, Han SN, Bontenbal M, Ring AE, Giermek J, et al. Prognosis of women with primary breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy: results from an international collaborative study. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(20):2532–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Nicklas AH, Baker ME. Imaging strategies in the pregnant cancer patient. Semin Oncol. 2000;27(6):623–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Max MH, Klamer TW. Pregnancy and breast cancer. South Med J. 1983;76(9):1088–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Samuels TH, Liu FF, Yaffe M, Haider M. Gestational breast cancer. Canadian Assoc Radiol J (Journal l’Association canadienne des radiologistes). 1998;49(3):172–80.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Vashi R, Hooley R, Butler R, Geisel J, Philpotts L. Breast imaging of the pregnant and lactating patient: physiologic changes and common benign entities. AJR. 2013;200(2):329–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Frank G, Shellock EK. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1999;10(3):477–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Shao-Pow Lin JJB. MR contrast agents: physical and pharmacologic basics. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;25(5):884–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Shellock FG, Crues JV. MR procedures: biologic effects, safety, and patient care. Radiology. 2004;232(3):635–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Benveniste H, Fowler JS, Rooney WD, Moller DH, Backus WW, Warner DA, et al. Maternal-fetal in vivo imaging: a combined PET and MRI study. J Nucl Med. 2003;44(9):1522–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    ten Hove CH, Zijlstra-Baalbergen JM, Comans EI, van Elburg RM. An unusual hotspot in a young woman with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Haematologica. 2008;93(1):e14–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Bottles K, Taylor RN. Diagnosis of breast masses in pregnant and lactating women by aspiration cytology. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;66(3 Suppl):76S–8S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Mitre BK, Kanbour AI, Mauser N. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of breast carcinoma in pregnancy and lactation. Acta Cytol. 1997;41(4):1121–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Novotny DB, Maygarden SJ, Shermer RW, Frable WJ. Fine needle aspiration of benign and malignant breast masses associated with pregnancy. Acta Cytol. 1991;35(6):676–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Shannon J, Douglas-Jones AG, Dallimore NS. Conversion to core biopsy in preoperative diagnosis of breast lesions: is it justified by results? J Clin Pathol. 2001;54(10):762–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Stewart A, Webb K, Giles D. Malignant disease in childhood and diagnostic irradiation in utero. Lancet. 1956;2:447.Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    Court Brown WM, Doll R, Hill RB. Incidence of leukaemia after exposure to diagnostic radiation in utero. Br Med J. 1960;2(5212):1539–45.Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Diamond EL, Schmerler H, Lilienfeld AM. The relationship of intra-uterine radiation to subsequent mortality and development of leukemia in children. A prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1973;97(5):283–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Delongchamp RR, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Preston DL. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950–May 1992. Radiat Res. 1997;147(3):385–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Puglisi F, Follador A, Minisini AM, Cardellino GG, Russo S, Andreetta C, et al. Baseline staging tests after a new diagnosis of breast cancer: further evidence of their limited indications. Ann Oncol. 2005;16(2):263–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Mazze RI, Kallen B. Reproductive outcome after anesthesia and operation during pregnancy: a registry study of 5405 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(5):1178–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Woo JC, Yu T, Hurd TC. Breast cancer in pregnancy: a literature review. Arch Surg. 2003;138(1):91–8 (discussion 9).Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Kuerer HM, Gwyn K, Ames FC, Theriault RL. Conservative surgery and chemotherapy for breast carcinoma during pregnancy. Surgery. 2002;131(1):108–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Ruo Redda MG, Verna R, Guarneri A, Sannazzari GL. Timing of radiotherapy in breast cancer conserving treatment. Cancer Treat Rev. 2002;28(1):5–10.Google Scholar
  371. 371.
    Gentilini O, Masullo M, Rotmensz N, Peccatori F, Mazzarol G, Smeets A, et al. Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation: biological features and treatment options. Eur J Surg Oncol (EJSO). 2005;31(3):232–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Sprung J, Tully MJ, Ziser A. Anaphylactic reactions to isosulfan blue dye during sentinel node lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. Anesth Analg. 2003;96(4):1051–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Pruthi S, Haakenson C, Brost BC, Bryant K, Reid JM, Singh R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of methylene blue dye for lymphatic mapping in breast cancer-implications for use in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2011;201(1):70–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Gentilini O, Cremonesi M, Trifiro G, Ferrari M, Baio SM, Caracciolo M, et al. Safety of sentinel node biopsy in pregnant patients with breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2004;15(9):1348–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Keleher A, Wendt R 3rd, Delpassand E, Stachowiak AM, Kuerer HM. The safety of lymphatic mapping in pregnant breast cancer patients using Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Breast J. 2004;10(6):492–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Pandit-Taskar N, Dauer LT, Montgomery L, St. Germain J, Zanzonico PB, Divgi CR. Organ and fetal absorbed dose estimates from 99mTc-sulfur colloid lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node localization in breast cancer patients. J Nucl Med. 2006;47(7):1202–8.Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Gropper AB, Calvillo KZ, Dominici L, Troyan S, Rhei E, Economy KE, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in pregnant women with breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(8):2506–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Greskovich JF Jr, Macklis RM. Radiation therapy in pregnancy: risk calculation and risk minimization. Semin Oncol. 2000;27(6):633–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Kal HB, Struikmans H. Radiotherapy during pregnancy: fact and fiction. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(5):328–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Antypas C, Sandilos P, Kouvaris J, Balafouta E, Karinou E, Kollaros N, et al. Fetal dose evaluation during breast cancer radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;40(4):995–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Petrek JA. Breast cancer during pregnancy. Cancer. 1994;74(1 Suppl):518–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Amant F, Vandenbroucke T, Verheecke M, Fumagalli M, Halaska MJ, Boere I, et al. Pediatric outcome after maternal cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2015.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Huang J, Barbera L, Brouwers M, Browman G, Mackillop WJ. Does delay in starting treatment affect the outcomes of radiotherapy? A systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(3):555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Doll DC, Ringenberg QS, Yarbro JW. Antineoplastic agents and pregnancy. Semin Oncol. 1989;16(5):337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Germann N, Goffinet F, Goldwasser F. Anthracyclines during pregnancy: embryo-fetal outcome in 160 patients. Ann Oncol. 2004;15(1):146–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Byrd BF Jr, Bayer DS, Robertson JC, Stephenson SE Jr. Treatment of breast tumors associated with pregnancy and lactation. Ann Surg. 1962;155:940–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Murray CL, Reichert JA, Anderson J, Twiggs LB. Multimodal cancer therapy for breast cancer in the first trimester of pregnancy. A case report. JAMA. 1984;252(18):2607–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Turchi JJ, Villasis C. Anthracyclines in the treatment of malignancy in pregnancy. Cancer. 1988;61(3):435–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Wiebe VJ, Sipila PE. Pharmacology of antineoplastic agents in pregnancy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1994;16(2):75–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Williams SF, Schilsky RL. Antineoplastic drugs administered during pregnancy. Semin Oncol. 2000;27(6):618–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Ebert U, Loffler H, Kirch W. Cytotoxic therapy and pregnancy. Pharmacol Ther. 1997;74(2):207–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Zemlickis D, Lishner M, Degendorfer P, Panzarella T, Burke B, Sutcliffe SB, et al. Maternal and fetal outcome after breast cancer in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166(3):781–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Cardonick E, Iacobucci A. Use of chemotherapy during human pregnancy. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5(5):283–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Giacalone PL, Laffargue F, Benos P. Chemotherapy for breast carcinoma during pregnancy: a French national survey. Cancer. 1999;86(11):2266–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Ring AE, Smith IE, Jones A, Shannon C, Galani E, Ellis PA. Chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy: an 18-year experience from five London teaching hospitals. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(18):4192–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Hahn KM, Johnson PH, Gordon N, Kuerer H, Middleton L, Ramirez M, et al. Treatment of pregnant breast cancer patients and outcomes of children exposed to chemotherapy in utero. Cancer. 2006;107(6):1219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Litton JK, Warneke CL, Hahn KM, Palla SL, Kuerer HM, Perkins GH, et al. Case control study of women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy as compared with nonpregnant patients with breast cancer. Oncologist. 2013;18(4):369–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Gentilini O, Masullo M, Rotmensz N, Peccatori F, Mazzarol G, Smeets A, et al. Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation: biological features and treatment options. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005;31(3):232–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Peccatori F, Martinelli G, Gentilini O, Goldhirsch A. Chemotherapy during pregnancy: what is really safe? Lancet Oncol. 2004;5(7):398.Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Litton JK, Warneke CL, Hahn KM, Palla SL, Kuerer HM, Perkins GH, et al. Case control study of women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy as compared with nonpregnant patients with breast cancer. Oncologist. 2013;18(4):369–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Meyer-Wittkopf M, Barth H, Emons G, Schmidt S. Fetal cardiac effects of doxorubicin therapy for carcinoma of the breast during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;18(1):62–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Achtari C, Hohlfeld P. Cardiotoxic transplacental effect of idarubicin administered during the second trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(2):511–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Peres RM, Sanseverino MT, Guimaraes JL, Coser V, Giuliani L, Moreira RK, et al. Assessment of fetal risk associated with exposure to cancer chemotherapy during pregnancy: a multicenter study. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34(12):1551–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Reynoso EE, Huerta F. Acute leukemia and pregnancy—fatal fetal outcome after exposure to idarubicin during the second trimester. Acta Oncol. 1994;33(6):709–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Siu BL, Alonzo MR, Vargo TA, Fenrich AL. Transient dilated cardiomyopathy in a newborn exposed to idarubicin and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) early in the second trimester of pregnancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2002;12(4):399–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Eedarapalli P, Biswas N, Coleman M. Epirubicin for breast cancer during pregnancy: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52(8):730–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Karp GI, von Oeyen P, Valone F, Khetarpal VK, Israel M, Mayer RJ, et al. Doxorubicin in pregnancy: possible transplacental passage. Cancer Treat Rep. 1983;67(9):773–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    De Santis M, Lucchese A, De Carolis S, Ferrazani S, Caruso A. Metastatic breast cancer in pregnancy: first case of chemotherapy with docetaxel. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2000;9(4):235–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Gainford MC, Clemons M. Breast cancer in pregnancy: are taxanes safe? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2006;18(2):159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Walters RS, Carpenter RJ Jr, Ross MI, Perkins GH, Gwyn K, et al. Paclitaxel chemotherapy in a pregnant patient with bilateral breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2004;5(4):317–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Mendez LE, Mueller A, Salom E, Gonzalez-Quintero VH. Paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy administered during pregnancy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102(5 Pt 2):1200–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Nieto Y, Santisteban M, Aramendia JM, Fernandez-Hidalgo O, Garcia-Manero M, Lopez G. Docetaxel administered during pregnancy for inflammatory breast carcinoma. Clin Breast Cancer. 2006;6(6):533–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Potluri V, Lewis D, Burton GV. Chemotherapy with taxanes in breast cancer during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Clin Breast Cancer. 2006;7(2):167–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Sood AK, Shahin MS, Sorosky JI. Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma during pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;83(3):599–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Mir O, Berveiller P, Goffinet F, Treluyer JM, Serreau R, Goldwasser F, et al. Taxanes for breast cancer during pregnancy: a systematic review. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(2):425–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Cardonick E, Bhat A, Gilmandyar D, Somer R. Maternal and fetal outcomes of taxane chemotherapy in breast and ovarian cancer during pregnancy: case series and review of the literature. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(12):3016–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Pant S, Landon MB, Blumenfeld M, Farrar W, Shapiro CL. Treatment of breast cancer with trastuzumab during pregnancy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(9):1567–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Bader AA, Schlembach D, Tamussino KF, Pristauz G, Petru E. Anhydramnios associated with administration of trastuzumab and paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer during pregnancy. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8(1):79–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Fanale MA, Uyei AR, Theriault RL, Adam K, Thompson RA. Treatment of metastatic breast cancer with trastuzumab and vinorelbine during pregnancy. Clin Breast Cancer. 2005;6(4):354–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Sekar R, Stone PR. Trastuzumab use for metastatic breast cancer in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(2 Pt 2):507–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Watson WJ. Herceptin (trastuzumab) therapy during pregnancy: association with reversible anhydramnios. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(3):642–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Shrim A, Garcia-Bournissen F, Maxwell C, Farine D, Koren G. Favorable pregnancy outcome following Trastuzumab (Herceptin) use during pregnancy—case report and updated literature review. Reprod Toxicol (Elmsford, NY). 2007;23(4):611–3.Google Scholar
  423. 423.
    Waterston AM, Graham J. Effect of adjuvant trastuzumab on pregnancy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(2):321–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Azim HA Jr, Metzger-Filho O, de Azambuja E, Loibl S, Focant F, Gresko E, et al. Pregnancy occurring during or following adjuvant trastuzumab in patients enrolled in the HERA trial (BIG 01-01). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;133(1):387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Zagouri F, Sergentanis TN, Chrysikos D, Papadimitriou CA, Dimopoulos MA, Bartsch R. Trastuzumab administration during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;137(2):349–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Kelly H, Graham M, Humes E, Dorflinger LJ, Boggess KA, O’Neil BH, et al. Delivery of a healthy baby after first-trimester maternal exposure to lapatinib. Clin Breast Cancer. 2006;7(4):339–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Chamness GC, Bannayan GA, Landry LAJ, Sheridan PJ, McGuire WL. Abnormal reproductive development in rats after neonatally administered antiestrogen (Tamoxifen). Biol Reprod. 1979;21(5):1087–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Iguchi T, Hirokawa M, Takasugi N. Occurence of genital tract abnormalities and bladder hernia in female mice exposed neonatally to tamoxifen. Toxicology. 1986;42(1):1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Tucker M, Adam H, Patterson J. Tamoxifen (Chap. 6). In: Laurence DR, McLean AEM, Wetherall M, editors.Safety testing of new drugs laboratory predictions and clinical performance. London: Academic Press; 1984. p. 125–61.Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Barthelmes L, Gateley CA. Tamoxifen and pregnancy. Breast. 2004;13(6):446–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Andreadis C, Charalampidou M, Diamantopoulos N, Chouchos N, Mouratidou D. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy during conception and first two trimesters of gestation in a woman with metastatic breast cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;95(1):252–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Isaacs RJ, Hunter W, Clark K. Tamoxifen as systemic treatment of advanced breast cancer during pregnancy–case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;80(3):405–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Cullins SL, Pridjian G, Sutherland CM. Goldenhar’s syndrome associated with tamoxifen given to the mother during gestation. JAMA. 1994;271(24):1905–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Tewari K, Bonebrake RG, Asrat T, Shanberg AM. Ambiguous genitalia in infant exposed to tamoxifen in utero. Lancet. 1997;350(9072):183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Goldhirsch A, Gelber RD. Life with consequences of breast cancer: pregnancy during and after endocrine therapies. Breast. 2004;13(6):443–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Delozier T, Switsers O, Genot JY, Ollivier JM, Hery M, Namer M, et al. Delayed adjuvant tamoxifen: ten-year results of a collaborative randomized controlled trial in early breast cancer (TAM-02 trial). Ann Oncol. 2000;11(5):515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Einarson A, Maltepe C, Navioz Y, Kennedy D, Tan MP, Koren G. The safety of ondansetron for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a prospective comparative study. BJOG. 2004;111(9):940–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Cowchock S. Prevention of fetal death in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Lupus. 1996;5(5):467–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Carmichael SL, Shaw GM. Maternal corticosteroid use and risk of selected congenital anomalies. Am J Med Genet. 1999;86(3):242–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Park-Wyllie L, Mazzotta P, Pastuszak A, Moretti ME, Beique L, Hunnisett L, et al. Birth defects after maternal exposure to corticosteroids: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Teratology. 2000;62(6):385–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Bilgin K, Yaramis A, Haspolat K, Tas MA, Gunbey S, Derman O. A randomized trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in neonates with sepsis and neutropenia. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):36–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Schibler KR, Osborne KA, Leung LY, Le TV, Baker SI, Thompson DD. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to newborn infants with neutropenia and clinical signs of early-onset sepsis. Pediatrics. 1998;102(1 Pt 1):6–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Ghosh A, Ayers KJ. Darbepoetin alfa for treatment of anaemia in a case of chronic renal failure during pregnancy—case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2007;34(3):193–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Sangalli MR, Peek M, McDonald A. Prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment for acquired chronic severe neutropenia in pregnancy. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41(4):470–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Stathopoulos IP, Liakou CG, Katsalira A, Trovas G, Lyritis GG, Papaioannou NA, et al. The use of bisphosphonates in women prior to or during pregnancy and lactation. Hormones (Athens, Greece). 2011;10(4):280–91.Google Scholar
  446. 446.
    Byrne J, Rasmussen SA, Steinhorn SC, Connelly RR, Myers MH, Lynch CF, et al. Genetic disease in offspring of long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62(1):45–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Dodds L, Marrett LD, Tomkins DJ, Green B, Sherman G. Case-control study of congenital anomalies in children of cancer patients. BMJ. 1993;307(6897):164–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Edgar AB, Wallace WHB. Pregnancy in women who had cancer in childhood. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43(13):1890–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Li FP, Fine W, Jaffe N, Holmes GE, Holmes FF. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979;62(5):1193–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Mulvihill JJ, Myers MH, Connelly RR, Byrne J, Austin DF, Bragg K, et al. Cancer in offspring of long-term survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Lancet. 1987;2(8563):813–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Mastro LD, Catzeddu T, Venturini M. Infertility and pregnancy after breast cancer: Current knowledge and future perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev. 2006;32(6):417–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Azim HA Jr, Santoro L, Pavlidis N, Gelber S, Kroman N, Azim H, et al. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(1):74–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. 453.
    Calhoun K, Hansen N. The effect of pregnancy on survival in women with a history of breast cancer. Breast Disease. 2005;23:81–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Blakely LJ, Buzdarm AU, Lozada JA, Shullaih SA, Hoy E, Smith TL, et al. Effects of pregnancy after treatment for breast carcinoma on survival and risk of recurrence. Cancer. 2004;100(3):465–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    Raphael J, Trudeau ME, Chan K. Outcome of patients with pregnancy during or after breast cancer: a review of the recent literature. Curr Oncol. 2015;22:S8–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    Sankila R, Heinavaara S, Hakulinen T. Survival of breast cancer patients after subsequent term pregnancy: “healthy mother effect”. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170(3):818–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Kroman N, Jensen MB, Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J, Mouridsen HT. Should women be advised against pregnancy after breast-cancer treatment? Lancet. 1997;350(9074):319–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Harvey JC, Rosen PP, Ashikari R, Robbins GF, Kinne DW. The effect of pregnancy on the prognosis of carcinoma of the breast following radical mastectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1981;153(5):723–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Clark RM, Chua T. Breast cancer and pregnancy: the ultimate challenge. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1989;1(1):11–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Mueller BA, Simon MS, Deapen D, Kamineni A, Malone KE, Daling JR. Childbearing and survival after breast carcinoma in young women. Cancer. 2003;98(6):1131–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Donnenfeld AE, Pastuszak A, Noah JS, Schick B, Rose NC, Koren G. Methotrexate exposure prior to and during pregnancy. Teratology. 1994;49(2):79–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Findlay PA, Gorrell CR, d’Angelo T, Glatstein E. Lactation after breast radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;15(2):511–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Wobbes T. Effect of a breast saving procedure on lactation. Eur J Surg Acta Chir. 1996;162(5):419–20.Google Scholar
  464. 464.
    Hassey KM. Pregnancy and parenthood after treatment for breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1988;15(4):439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    Higgins S, Haffty BG. Pregnancy and lactation after breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer. Cancer. 1994;73(8):2175–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Zimpelmann A, Kaufmann M. Breastfeeding nursing after breast surgery. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2002;124(11):525–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Mor V, Malin M, Allen S. Age differences in the psychosocial problems encountered by breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;16:191–7.Google Scholar
  468. 468.
    Northouse LL. Breast cancer in younger women: effects on interpersonal and family relations. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1994;16:183–90.Google Scholar
  469. 469.
    Guth U, Huang DJ, Alder J, Moffat R. Family ties: young breast cancer patients and their children. Swiss Med Wkly. 2015;145:w14163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Kornblith AB, Powell M, Regan MM, Bennett S, Krasner C, Moy B, et al. Long-term psychosocial adjustment of older vs younger survivors of breast and endometrial cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2007;16(10):895–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Oddens BJ, den Tonkelaar I, Nieuwenhuyse H. Psychosocial experiences in women facing fertility problems--a comparative survey. Human Reprod (Oxford, England). 1999;14(1):255–61.Google Scholar
  472. 472.
    Fertility preservation and reproduction in cancer patients. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(6):1622–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Dow KH. Having children after breast cancer. Cancer Pract. 1994;2(6):407–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyUniversity Hospital/Inselspital and IBCSG Coordinating CenterBerneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Coordinating Center International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG)BerneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations