Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities of the Breast

  • Kristin BaumannEmail author
  • Telja Pursche


Congenital abnormities of the breast rarely occur. They can be split into three main groups: (1) excessive development within the field of the embryonic milk line, containing polythelia (development of an additional mammilla) and polymastia (development of additional breasts); (2) underdevelopment of the mammary corpus, including amastia/athelia (absence of the mamma/nipple), Poland syndrome, tubular breast, and micromastia (hypoplasia of the mamma); and (3) malformation of mammilla and areola (e.g., inverted nipples). Depending on the cause, reconstructive intervention may help the affected patients to improve self-esteem and quality of life.


Malformation Abnormalities Breast Congenital Development Reconstruction 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic for Gynaecology and ObstetricsUniversity Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein Campus LübeckLübeckGermany

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