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Economic growth and the mechanisms of its management are among the most important problems of economic theory. The significance and importance of these issues in modern economic research is confirmed by the high frequency with which the Nobel Prize is awarded to those researchers who study particular aspects of them. Among the most significant works are those by Kuznets (1971), Schultz and Lewis (1979), Solow (1987) and other Nobel Prize winners. In Russian economic tradition, the study of the problems of economic growth was largely influenced by Marxist theory, with its ideas about the evolution of means of production and forms of economic relations in society. In economic science in Russia today, there is also a special role for institutional economy, and many original concepts and theoretical approaches to the study of economic growth are offered within this context.