Globalisation, Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Mozambique

  • Sarita Monjane HenriksenEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Complexity book series (SPCOM)


The present paper discusses the issue of increasing levels of multilingualism and multiculturalism, worldwide, as consequence of ongoing globalisation and look at the major challenges involved in managing linguistic and cultural diversity at societal, institutional and academic level, in particular. The paper has as its major focus the Mozambican context and drawing on current research in the country and internationally on the language question, it discusses the various existing challenges and opportunities for devising an inclusive and democratic language and language education policy.


Multilingualism Multiculturalism Globalisation and diversity 


  1. 1.
    Henriksen SM (2010) Language attitudes in a primary school: a bottom-up approach to language education policy in Mozambique. PhD Dissertation, Roskilde Universitet, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ruíz R (1984) Orientations in language planning. In: Mackay SL, Wong SC (eds) Language diversity. Problem or resource? Newbury House Publishers, New York, pp 3–25Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coulmas F (ed) (1982) Linguistic minorities and literacy – language policy issues in developing countries. Mouton Publishers, Berlin, pp 29–37Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pool J (1972) National development and language diversity. In: Fishman J (ed) Advances in the sociology of language. The Hague, pp 213–230Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tsonope J (1995) Prospects of the indigenous languages of Botswana: implications of the Government White Paper No. 2 of 1994. Mosenodi 3(1&2):5–13Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laitin D (2004) Language policy and civil war. In: Van Parijs P (ed) Proceedings of the seventh Francqui Colloquium. De Boeck, Brussels. Retrievable at
  7. 7.
    Grin F (2004) On the costs of diversity. In: Van Parijs P (ed) Proceedings of the seventh Francqui Colloquium. De Boeck, Brussels. Retrievable at
  8. 8.
    Ganhão F (1979) O Papel da Língua Portuguesa em Moçambique. 1 Seminário Nacional sobre o Ensino da Língua Portuguesa. Unpublished Paper. Ministry of Education and Culture, MozambiqueGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ministério da Educação MINED (2003) Plano Curricular do Ensino Básico. Objectivos, Política, Estrutura, Plano de Estudos e Estratégias de Implementação. DINAME, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Firmino G (2005) A “Questão Linguística” na África Pós-Colonial. O Caso do Português e das Línguas Autóctones em Moçambique. Texto Editores, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benson C (2004) Trilingualism in Guinea-Bissau and the question of instructional language. In: Hoffmann C, Ytsma J (eds) Trilingualism in family, school and community. Multilingual matters, Clevedon, pp 166–184Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gonçalves P (1996) Português de Moçambique: Uma Variedade em Formação. Livraria Universitária, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, MaputoGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lopes AJ (1998) The language situation in Mozambique. J Multiling Multicult Dev 19(5 & 6):440–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Couto M (1986) Uma Maneira Moçambicana de Contar Histórias Moçambicanas. In an interview to the Gazeta de Artes e Letras. Tempo 835Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mazrui A, Mazrui A (1998) The Power of Babel - language and governance in the African experience. James Carrey Ltd., OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kashoki ME (2003) Language policy formulation in multilingual Southern Africa. J Multiling Multicult Dev 24(3):184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kamwangamalu N (2006) Bi-/Multilingualism in Southern Africa. In: Bhatia TK, Ritchie WC (eds) The handbook of bilingualism. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 725–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baetens Beardsmore H (1995) The European school experience in multilingual education. In: Skutnabb-Kangas T (ed) Multilingualism for all. Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., Lisse, pp 21–68Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mishra M (2004) Contextualizing classrooms in tribal area schools in Orissa. An experiential learning. In: Language in India, vol 4, 4 April 2004Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Limbach J (2008) Plurilingualism and multilingualism – obstacles on the route towards a European public? Paper presented at the British Council Conference – Languages for Europe – held in Berlin, 1–2 February 2008Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aarts R, Extra G, Yagmur K (2004) Multilingualism in the Hague. In: Extra G, Yagmur K (eds) Urban multilingualism in Europe. Immigrant minority languages at home and school. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp 193–220Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hélot C, Young A (2006) Imagining multilingual education in France: a language and cultural awareness project at primary level. In: García O, Skutnabb-Kangas T, Torres-Guzmán M (eds) Imagining multilingual schools. Languages in education and glocalization. Multilingual Matters Ltd., Clevedon, pp 69–90Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lo Bianco J (1987) National policy on languages. Australian Government Publishing Service, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alexander N (2006) Communicating in local languages: a prerequisite for community access. In: Fourth session of the Intergovernmental Council for UNESCO’s Information for All Programme (IFAP), ParisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade PedagógicaMaputoMozambique

Personalised recommendations