Advertisement

Emerging Collective Shared Behaviors from Individual Exploration in Football Small-Sided Games

  • A. RicEmail author
  • C. Torrents
  • R. Hristovski
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Complexity book series (SPCOM)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the soft-assembled exploratory hierarchical dynamics of tactical behavior under specific task constraints manipulations. Two teams of four professional male footballers played in small-sided games format against two different teams changing the number of opponents (3, 5, and 7). Resulting trials were analyzed by a combination of systematic observation and a non-differential global positioning system (15 Hz). Tactical patterns of each player formed 37 (4D categories) ×360 s data vectors. Using a soft-assembled hierarchy model by means of two statistical analyses: a hierarchical principal component analysis and the calculation of dynamic overlap order parameter q, we determined the hierarchical structure of the potential landscape of the team players and its dynamic properties. The sequential reduction of each set level of principal components (PCs) revealed one PC as the slowest collective variable forming the global basin of attraction of tactical patterns. The dynamic overlap showed the interaction of two separate time scales. The short time scale lasted a few seconds and corresponded to short-lived emergent task solutions. The long time scale corresponded to the shared tasks of offence and defense lasting tens of seconds. The stationary overlap of the exploratory dynamics showed the decrease on behavioral diversity with an increasing number of opposing players. The temporally nested structure of constraints shaped the emergence of tactical behavior providing a new rationale for practice task design.

Keywords

Soft-assembled dynamics Action hierarchy Task constraints 

References

  1. 1.
    Araujo D, Davids K, Hristovski R (2006) The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport. Psychol Sport Exerc 7:653–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hristovski R, Davids K, Araújo D, Passos P (2011) Constraints-induced emergence of functional novelty in complex neurobiological systems: a basis for creativity in sport. Nonlinear Dyn Psychol Life Sci 15:175–206Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hristovski R, Davids K, Araújo D, Button C (2006) How boxers decide to punch a target: emergent behaviour in nonlinear dynamical movement systems. J Sport Sci Med 5:60–73Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pinder RA, Davids K, Renshaw I (2012) Metastability and emergent performance of dynamic interceptive actions. J Sci Med Sport 15:437–443Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Torrents C, Ric A, Hristovski R (2015) Creativity and emergence of specific dance movements using instructional constraints. Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts 9:65–74Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davids K, Araújo D, Correia V, Vilar L (2013) How small-sided and conditioned games enhance acquisition of movement and decision-making skills. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 41:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Passos P, Milho J, Fonseca S, Borges J, Araújo D, Davids K (2011) Interpersonal distance regulates functional grouping tendencies of agents in team sports. J Mot Behav 43:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aguiar MVD, Botelho GMA, Gonçalves BSV, Sampaio JE (2013) Physiological responses and activity profiles of football small-sided games. J Strength Cond Res 27:1287–1294Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sampaio JE, Lago C, Gonçalves B, Maçãs VM, Leite N (2014) Effects of pacing, status and unbalance in time motion variables, heart rate and tactical behaviour when playing 5-a-side football small-sided games. J Sci Med Sport 17:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frencken W, Lemmink K, Delleman N, Visscher C (2011) Oscillations of centroid position and surface area of soccer teams in small-sided games. Eur J Sport Sci 11:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Joliffe IT (2002) Principal component analysis. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sibani P, Dall J (2003) Log-Poisson statistics and full aging in glassy systems. EPL 64:8Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Costa IT, Garganta J, Greco PJ, Mesquita I, Maia J (2011) System of tactical assessment in soccer (FUT-SAT): development and preliminary validation. System 7:69–83Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Folgado H, Duarte R, Fernandes O, Sampaio J (2014) Competing with lower level opponents decreases intra-team movement synchronization and time-motion demands during pre-season soccer matches. PLoS One 9:e97145ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ric A, Hristovski R, Gonçalves B, Torres L, Sampaio J, Torrents C (2016) Timescales for exploratory tactical behaviour in football small-sided games. J Sports Sci 34:1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Balague N, Torrents C, Hristovski R, Davids K, Araújo D (2013) Overview of complex systems in sport. J Syst Sci Complex 26:4–13CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Araújo D, Passos P, Esteves P, Duarte R, Lopes J, Hristovski R, Davids K (2015) The micro-macro link is understanding sport tactical behaviours: integrating information and action at different levels of system analysis in sport. Mov Sport Sci 2015:1–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC), Complex Systems in Sport Research Group,University of LleidaLleidaSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of Physical Education, Sport and Health, Skopje, Complex Systems in Sport Research GroupSs. Cyril and Methodius UniversitySkopjeMacedonia

Personalised recommendations