Advertisement

Birds of Lake Tana Sub-basin

  • Shimelis Aynalem
Chapter
Part of the AESS Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies and Sciences Series book series (AESS)

Abstract

Birds play a vital role in keeping the balance of nature. Lake Tana is the largest lake in Ethiopia, with a surface area of 3200 km2 and a watershed of 15,100 km2 located at 1800 m a.s.l. Most of the wetlands situated along the rivers and Lake Tana shore support several thousands of birds. Taking previous work in the area into consideration, the Lake Tana sub-basin possesses six globally threatened species, 35 highland biome species and four Sudan–Guinea Savanna biome species. The sub-basin area is particularly important for wetland and water birds. The total population of birds counted during the winter season exceeds 150,000 seasonally, in Lake Tana area alone. Shesher-wallala area contributes the largest winter population. The Lake Tana sub-basin consists of 78 families of 437 birds; the most dominant is Accipitridae with 39 species. The distribution of birds in the area is changeable. However, the Lake Tana area and associated wetlands hold the largest bird populations compared with forest, farmland and bush land habitats. The Fogera and Dembia flood plain provides suitable feeding and roosting sites for winter birds, and is also known as a congregation site. Both Palearctic (112) and Afrotropical migrants (7) occur. In addition, the Lake Tana sub-basin holds 15 species of endemic birds, some of which are shared with Eritrea. Degradation of the wetlands is underway, with overgrazing, vegetation removal, cultivation, deforestation, occurrence of invasive weeds, wetland drainage, flooding, continuing sedimentation, major water resources development in the basin are the main threats.

Keywords

Avifauna Endemic birds Migratory birds Lake Tana Sub-basin birds 

References

  1. Ash J, Atkins J (2009) Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: an atlas of distribution. Christopher Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. BirdLife International (2004) Most endemic bird areas are in the tropics and important for other biodiversity too. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/61. Accessed 19 Aug 2014
  3. BirdLife International (2008) Congregation at particular sites is a common behaviour in many bird species. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/58. Accessed 19 Aug 2014
  4. Dessalegn MK, Chlosom N, Enright P (2011) Putting research knowledge into Action: the missing link for sustainability of Lake Tana ecosystem, Ethiopia. Ee-JRIF 3(2):4–19Google Scholar
  5. Hillman JC (1993) Ethiopia: compendium of wildlife conservation information. Vol 1 and 2. NYZS - The wildlife conservation society international, New York and Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organisation, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  6. Jones M (1998) Study design. In: Bibby C, Jones M, Marseden S (eds) Expedition field techniques: bird surveys. Royal Geographical Society, London, pp 15–34Google Scholar
  7. Jones K, Lanthier Y et al (2009) Monitoring and assessment of wetlands using Earth Observation: the Glob Wetland project. J Envir Manag 90(7):2154–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krebs JR, Wilson JD et al (1999) The second silent spring? Nature 400(6745):611–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ministry of Health: National hygiene and sanitation strategy. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2005) http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/622200751450_EthiopiaNationalHygieneAndSanitationStrategyAF.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2004
  10. Mitsch WJ (2005) Wetland creation, restoration, and conservation: a wetland invitational at the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park. Ecol Engin 24(4):243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mitsch WJ (2013) Wetland Utilization in the World: Protecting Sustainable Use http://www.globalwetlands.org/Conference. Accessed 6 Nov 2013
  12. Nega T, Afework B (2008) Diversity and habitat association of birds of Dembia plain wetlands, Lake Tana. Ethiopia. SINET: Ethiopi. J. Sci 31(1):1–10Google Scholar
  13. Nowald G, Schröder W, Günther V et al (2010) Kraniche Grus grus in Äthiopien—Common Cranes (Grus grus) in Ethiopia. Vogelwelt 131:1–13Google Scholar
  14. Sauer JR, Link WA (2002) Hierarchical modeling of population stability and species group attributes from survey data. Ecology 83(6):1743–1751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shimelis A, Afework B (2009) Species composition, relative abundance and habitat association of the bird fauna of montane forest of Zegie peninsula and nearby islands, lake tana, ethiopia. SINET: Ethiop. J. Sci 32(1):45–56Google Scholar
  16. Shimelis A Z (2013) Birds of Lake Tana area, Ethiopia. A photographic field guide. View Graphics and Printers, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  17. Shimelis A, Afework B (2008) Species composition, relative abundance and distribution of bird fauna of riverine and wetland habitats of Infranz and Yiganda at southern tip of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Trop Ecol 49(2):199–209Google Scholar
  18. Shimelis A, Afework B, Abebe G (2008) Species diversity, distribution, relative abundance and habitat association of the Avian Fauna of modified habitat of Bahir Dar and Debre Mariam Island, Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Int J Ecol Env Sci 34(3):259–267Google Scholar
  19. Shimelis A, Nowald G, Schroder W (2011) Observation on the biology and ecology of cranes: wattled cranes (grus carunculatus), black-crowned cranes (balearica pavonina), and eurasian cranes (grus grus) at Lake Tana, Ethiopia. INDWA. J Afr Crane Res Conservationist 7:1–12Google Scholar
  20. IUCN (2014). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 28 May 2015
  21. Tilahun S, Edwards S (eds.) (1996) Important bird areas of Ethiopia: a first inventory. Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, Semayata press, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  22. Weller MW (1999) Wetland birds: habitat resources and conservation implications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Blue Nile Water Institute and College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesBahir Dar UniversityBahir DarEthiopia
  2. 2.College of Natural ScienceAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.Research Associate of International Crane FoundationBarabooUSA

Personalised recommendations