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Eco-Adaptation Strategies of Health to Climate Change: Case of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis(ZCL) as Vulnerability Indicatorin Pre-Saharan Region of Morocco

  • Kholoud KahimeEmail author
  • Lahouari Bounoua
  • Mohammed Messouli
  • Samia Boussaa
  • Ali Boumezzough
Chapter

Abstract

Human societies are rapidly increasing in size, driving with them the level of appropriation of Earth’s resources, including land use. Today, human influence has reached global proportions and has altered ecosystems with consequences for local and regional climates. These changes in climates often alter the biosphere’s ecosystem services and social livelihood; and in some cases they strongly affect human security, including publichealth. For example, in Pre-Saharan North Africashifts in surface climate associated with climate change may have altered the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vectorial disease causing threat to health security in most North African countries. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease widespread in most countries of the Mediterranean basin, including Morocco where it causes a public health problem that is worsening with changes in climate and unsustainable population activities. ZCL is a form of leishmaniasis endemic in south-east Morocco, especially in the province of Errachidia. Caused by Leishmania major, this form is transmitted by Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae), with Meriones shawi grandisthe main reservoir host. This investigation is carried out in the province of Errachidia with the aim to assess the vulnerability of local populations to ZCL, as influenced by climate change, and identify potential adaptation strategies susceptible to reduce the risk of infection. Our research is based on extensive interviews with local populations, particularly about their behavior and their interactions with local environment changes. It also refers to reports from the Moroccan Ministry of Health on the prevalence of disease and socio-economic data from the region. As results, we report on micro-environmental and socio-economic aspects that may act as risk factors conditioning the resurgence of this parasitic disease. It is a contribution that raises the flag about ZCL in order to develop an eco-health approach and determine adaptation procedures able to reduce the sensitivity and exposure of vulnerable populations. Based on population perceptions, the relationship between the transmission cycle of disease, environment and local population was discussed.

Keywords

Leishmaniasis Vulnerability Climate change Adaptation Morocco 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kholoud Kahime
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lahouari Bounoua
    • 2
  • Mohammed Messouli
    • 3
  • Samia Boussaa
    • 4
  • Ali Boumezzough
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Ecology & Environment, Faculty of Sciences SemlaliaCadi Ayyad UniversityMarrakechMorocco
  2. 2.Biospheric Sciences LaboratoryNASA’s Goddard Space Flight CenterGoddardUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Ecotoxicology and Sanitation, Faculty of SciencesCadi Ayyad University of MarrakeshMarrakeshMorocco
  4. 4.Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et des Techniques de Santé (ISPITS)MarrakeshMorocco

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