A New Era for Energy: The Nightmare Gulf Scenario and Its Implications for Human and Environmental Security
The world is increasingly becoming an uncertain and unpredictable place for both individuals and governments. High oil prices have enriched many nations and impoverished others while the environment suffers in the process. Then, out of nowhere, came the global financial crisis to add more pressure and uncertainty to a world bruised by wars, divisions, violence, poverty and inequality. But the uncertainty of the world we live in continues. The recent emergence of shale gas (natural gas extracted from shale rock formations) as, potentially, a major competitor to conventional natural gas and even oil has created a great deal of excitement and concern in the energy world and among environmentalists. It has also created more uncertainty. This development in the energy landscape could have serious implications for many of the world’s producers of oil and gas (especially those in the Arab Gulf region) and their millions of expatriates (many of them from poor third world countries). This chapter will provide a historical and current account of the “shale phenomenon” and its implications for a region whose prosperity and stability was secured by generous wealth distribution programmes made possible by massive financial resources generated from the sale of conventional oil and gas.
KeywordsOil Gas Nuclear Shale GCC Arab Gulf
- Abu-Nasr, D. (2012). Saudis skip Arab spring as nation pours money into jobs. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-04-02/saudis-skip-arab-spring-as-nation-pours-money-into-jobs.html. Accessed 8 Apr 2012.
- Aizhu, C. (2014). China’s Sinopec says oil price slump won’t halt shale gas development. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/30/us-sinopec-shale-idUSKBN0K801U20141230. Accessed 15 Jan 2015.
- Arnold, T. (2013). Gulf states counting even more on oil price. http://www.thenational.ae/business/industry-insights/economics/gulf-states-counting-even-more-on-oil-price. Accessed 7 Apr 2013.
- BP. (2013). Statistical review of world energy.Google Scholar
- Butler, N. (2015). After the oil price fall, is natural gas next? http://blogs.ft.com/nick-butler/2015/01/04/after-the-oil-price-fall-is-natural-gas-next/. Accessed 15 Jan 2015.
- Chazan, G. (2012). Statoil to switch focus to ‘liquid-rich shales’. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ba882d30-523e-11e1-9f55-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1rWxHYLMM. Accessed 2 Apr 2012.
- CIA (2011). World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/
- DiPaola, A. (2011). Saudi Arabia to target solar power in $100 billion energy plan. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-31/saudi-arabia-to-target-solar-power-in-100-billion-energy-plan.html. Accessed 10 Apr 2012.
- Dodd, J. (2011). Masdar sets tender for 30MW Abu Dhabi project. http://www.windpowermonthly.com/news/1074347/Masdar-sets-tender-30MW-Abu-Dhabi-project/. Accessed 11 Apr 2012.
- Emerging Markets Monitor. (2008). US Crisis: GCC Impact, 14(26), 17.Google Scholar
- ENEC. (2011). Emirates nuclear energy corporation: Index. http://www.enec.gov.ae/. Accessed 5 Apr 2012.
- Energy Information Administration. (2013). Advanced Resources International (ARI) World Shale Gas Resources.Google Scholar
- FANR. (2011). History of FANR, Federal Authority of Nuclear Regulation. http://fanr.gov.ae/en/article/about-fanr/article.html. Accessed 10 Apr 2012.
- Fortson, D. (2012, April 15). Bonanza busts shale explorers. The Sunday Times, 9.Google Scholar
- Hamilton, J. D. (2012). Oil prices, exhaustible resources, and economic growth. National Bureau of Economic Research (Working Paper). http://econweb.ucsd.edu/~jhamilto/handbook_climate.pdf. Accessed 13 Mar 2012
- Humaidan, M. (2011). 16 Saudi nuclear reactors to cost $300 billion. http://www.arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article445147.ece
- John, I. (2011). UAE outpaces GCC in remittance growth. Khaleej Times. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle09.asp?xfile=data/business/2011/June/business_June216.xmlandsection=business
- Kapiszewski, A. (2006). Arab versus Asian migrant workers in the GCC countries, United Nations expert group meeting on international migration and development in the Arab region, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat.Google Scholar
- Kraemer, S. (2012). Saudis could export solar for the next twenty centuries. http://www.greenprophet.com/2012/04/saudis-could-export-solar-for-the-next-twenty-centuries/
- Kubota, Y. (2012). Factbox: Japan’s hidden nightmare scenario for Fukushima. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/17/us-japan-nuclear-scenarios-idUSTRE81G09120120217. Accessed 7 Apr 2012.
- Migration News. (2012). GCC: Migrants. April, 19 (2). http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=3759_0_3_0. Accessed 20 Sept 2012.
- Miller, A. H. (2012). Qatar solar technologies get unprecedented $1 billion in single-source financing. http://www.cleanenergyauthority.com/solar-energy-news/qatar-solar-technologies-1-billion-in-financing-060812. Accessed 13 Oct 2012.
- Morton, O. (2012, March 10). The dream that failed. The Economist.Google Scholar
- Norton Rose. (2011). Renewable energy in Qatar. http://www.nortonrose.com/knowledge/publications/48660/renewable-energy-in-qatar
- Parsons, C. (2012). Obama calls for expanded use of natural gas. http://articles.latimes.com/2012/jan/26/nation/la-na-obama-energy-20120127. Accessed 10 Apr 2012.
- Post, W. (2011). German nuclear decommissioning and renewables build-out. http://theenergycollective.com/willem-post/67528/german-nuclear-decommissioning-and-renewables-build-out. Accessed 14 Apr 2012.
- Radler, M. (2012). Oil, liquids-rich shales dominate capital spending budgets for 2012. http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/vol-110/issue-3/general-interest/special-report-capital/oil-liquids-rich.html. Accessed 8 Apr 2012.
- Renewable Energy Focus. (2012). Qatar solar technologies signs MoU to build polysilicon production plant. http://www.renewableenergyfocus.com/view/27322/qatar-solar-technologies-signs-mou-to-build-polysilicon-production-plant/. Accessed 7 Oct 2012.
- Roca, M. (2011). Belectric wins contract for largest Saudi solar plant in a Parking Lot. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-04/belectric-wins-contract-for-largest-saudi-solar-plant-in-a-parking-lot.html. Accessed 16 Apr 2012.
- Rodes, T. (2012). Masdar: The world’s first sustainable city. http://urbantimes.co/2012/02/masdar-sustainable-city/. Accessed 7 Oct 2012.
- Sharma, A., Sultan. N., & Weir, D. (2012). Going nuclear in the GCC countries: Rationale, challenges and politics. In M. A. Ramady (Ed.), The gulf cooperation council economies: Stepping up to future challenges. Springer.Google Scholar
- Shellenberger, M., & Nordhaus, T. (2011). Shale gas? Credit the feds, too, http://old.post-gazette.com/pg/11359/1198929-109-0.stm. Accessed 10 Apr 2012.
- SRSrocco Report. (2014). 2014: The year the U.S. Shale gas bubble bursts and the boom for precious metals? http://srsroccoreport.com/2014-the-year-the-u-s-shale-gas-bubble-bursts-the-boom-for-precious-metals/2014-the-year-the-u-s-shale-gas-bubble-bursts-the-boom-for-precious-metals/
- Sultan, N., Metcalfe, B., & Weir, D. (2011). Building the foundation for a post-oil era: The case of the GCC countries. In N. Sultan, D. Weir, & Z. Karake-Shalhoub (Eds.), The new post-oil Arab gulf: Managing people and wealth (pp. 17–43). London: Al-Saqi.Google Scholar
- The Economist. (2012). An unconventional bonanza (Special Report). http://www.economist.com/node/21558432
- Trembath, A. (2012). CNN blows Obama SOTU Shale gas fact-check. http://thebreakthrough.org/blog/2012/01/cnn_blows_obama_sotu_shale_gas.shtml. Accessed 10 Apr 2012.
- Valdini, C. (2012). UAE break-even oil price rises to US$107. http://www.arabianbusiness.com/uae-break-even-oil-price-rises-us-107-453437.html. Accessed 7 Apr 2013.
- Wang, U. (2011). Abu Dhabi: Rise of a renewable energy. http://ussolarinstitute.com/abu-dhabi-rise-of-a-renewable-energy-titan/
- World Energy Council. (2010). Survey of energy resources: Focus on shale gas.Google Scholar
- World Energy Council. (2012a). World energy perspective: Nuclear energy one year after Fukushima.Google Scholar
- World Energy Council. (2012b). Survey of energy resources: Shale gas – What’s new.Google Scholar
- World Nuclear Association. (2011a). Nuclear power in the United Arab Emirates. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/UAE_nuclear_power_inf123.html. Accessed 7 Mar 2012.
- World Nuclear Association. (2011b). Emerging nuclear energy countries. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf102.html. Accessed 11 Apr 2012.
- World Nuclear News. (2010). Training support for emerging nuclear energy nations. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/newsarticle.aspx?id=27388andterms=UAE. Accessed 14 Apr 2012.