The Protocol on Trade and the Creation of the Southern African Development Community Free Trade Area

  • Johannes MuntschickEmail author


The author offers a much-needed analysis of regional economic integration in the SADC and explains the successful establishment of the SADC Free Trade Area. He outlines the demand for regional market integration in the SADC’s member states from a structural perspective in consideration of intra-regional economic interdependence and trade relations. Against this background, this chapter provides an explanation of the specific provisions of the SADC Protocol on Trade that determined the institutional design of the free trade area. In this respect, Muntschick highlights the key role of South Africa as the regional economic hegemon. Finally, this chapter evaluates the performance of the SADC Free Trade Area on the basis of several indicators and concludes that the project is a success despite some shortcomings.


  1. Adelmann, M. 2003. Regionale Kooperation im südlichen Afrika. Freiburg: Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut.Google Scholar
  2. Afrikaverein der Deutschen Wirtschaft. 2012. SADC Business Climate 2010/11. Outlook 2012. A German Business Perspective. With Research provided by Rand Merchant Bank. Hamburg: Afrikaverein der Deutschen Wirtschaft.Google Scholar
  3. African Development Bank. 1993. Prospects for Economic Integration in Southern Africa. Oxford: Biddles.Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, N.L. 2004. African Regional Integration—The EU-SA Free Trade Agreement. Leipzig: Universität Leipzig.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, C.M. 1988. The Impact of Sanctions on South Africa and its Periphery. African Studies Review 31 (2): 61–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behar, A., and L. Edward. 2011. How Integrated is SADC? Trends in Intra-Regional and Extra-Regional Trade Flows Policy. Washington: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, T. 1993. The Impact of Sanctions on South Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 12 (1): 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bezuidenhout, H., and W. Naudé. 2008. Foreign Direct Investment and Trade in the Southern African Development Community. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.Google Scholar
  9. Brenton. P., F. Flatters, and P. Kalenga. 2005. Rules of Origin and SADC: The Case for Change in the Mid Term Review of the Trade Protocol. Africa Region Working Paper Series (83). Washington: World BankGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrère, C. 2004. African Regional Agreements: Impact on Trade with or without Currency Unions. Journal of African Economies 13 (2): 199–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chauvin, S., and G. Gaulier. 2002. Prospects for Increasing Trade Among SADC Countries. In Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa Yearbook, vol. 2, ed. D. Hansohm, C. Peters-Berries, W. Breytenbach, T. Hartzenberg, W. Maier, and P. Meyns, 21–42. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Chipeta, C., and K. Schade. 2007. Deepening Integration in SADC. Macroeconomic Policies and Social Impact. A Comparative Analysis of 10 Country Studies and Surveys of Business and Non-State Actors. Regional Integration in Southern Africa, vol 12. Gaborone: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
  13. Cleary, S. 1999. Regional Integration and the Southern African Development Community. Journal of Public and International Affairs 10 (1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  14. COSATU. 1999. COSATU Submission on the SADC Protocol on Trade. Johannesburg: COSATU.Google Scholar
  15. Coussy, J. 1996. Slow Institutional Progress and Capitalist Dynamics in Southern African Integration: Interpretations and Projects in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa 29: 1–40.Google Scholar
  16. Dahl, J. 2002. Regional Integration and Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of SADC. In Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa Yearbook, vol. 2, ed. D. Hansohm, C. Peters-Berries, W. Breytenbach, T. Hartzenberg, W. Maier, and P. Meyns, 59–82. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Daniel, J., V. Naidoo, and S. Naidu. 2003. The South Africans have Arrived: Post-apartheid Corporate Expansion into Africa. In State of the Nation. South Africa 2003–2004, ed. J. Daniel, A. Habib, and Southall R, 368–390. Cape Town: HSRC Press.Google Scholar
  18. Davies, R. 1996. Promoting Regional Integration in Southern Africa: An Analysis of Prospects and Problems from a South African Perspective. African Security Review 5 (5): 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Lombaerde, P., and van Langenhove L. 2006. Indicators of Regional Integration: Conceptual and Methodological Aspects. In Assessment and Measurement of Regional Integration, ed. P. de Lombaerde, 9–41. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Draper, P., P. Alves, and M. Kalaba. 2006. South Africa’s International Trade Diplomacy: Implications for Regional Integration, Regional Integration in Southern Africa, vol 1. Gaborone: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
  21. Draper, P., and N. Khumalo. 2005. Friend or Foe: South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa in the Global Trading System. In Reconfiguring the Compass: South Africa’s African Trade Diplomacy, ed. P. Draper, 1–37. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  22. Ebrill, L.P., and J.G. Stotsky. 1998. The Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization. In Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa, ed. Z. Iqbal and M.S. Kahn, 66–146. Washington: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  23. Erasmus, H., F. Flatters, and R. Kirk. 2004. Rules of Origin as Tools of Development? Some Lessons from SADC. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  24. Erasmus, H., F. Flatters, and R. Kirk. 2006. Rules of Origin as Tools for Development? Some Lessons from SADC. In The Origin of Goods. Rules of Origin in Regional Trade Agreements, ed. O. Cadot, A. Estevadeordal, A. Suwa-Eisenmann, and T. Verdier, 259–294. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Flatters, F. 2001. The SADC Trade Protocol: Impacts, Issues and the Way Ahead. Paper prepared under the USAID/RCSA SADC Trade Protocol Project. (10/10/2016).
  26. Flatters F. 2004. SADC Rules of Origin in Textiles and Garments: Barriers to Regional Trade and Global Integration. In The Impact of Preferential Rules of Origin in the Textile and Clothing Sector in Africa, ed. R. Grynberg, 41–66. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  27. Foroutan, F., and L. Pritchett. 1993. Intra-Sub-Saharan African Trade: Is it too Little? Journal of African Economies 2 (1): 74–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gelb, S. 2005. South-South Investment: The Case of Africa. In Africa in the World Economy: The National, Regional and International Challenges, ed. J.J. Teunissen and A. Akkerman, 200–205. Rotterdam: Forum on Debt and Development.Google Scholar
  29. Gibb, R. 1998. Southern Africa in Transition: Prospects and Problems Facing Regional Integration. Journal of Modern African Studies 36 (2): 287–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldstein, A. 2004. Regional Integration, FDI and Competitiveness in Southern Africa. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grobbelaar, N. 2004. Can South African Business Drive Regional Integration on the Continent? South African Journal of International Affairs 11 (2): 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haarlov, J. 1997. Regional Cooperation and Integration within Industry and Trade in Southern Africa. The Making of Modern Africa. Aldershot, Brookfield, and Hong Kong: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  33. Hanlon, J. 1986. Beggar Your Neighbours. Apartheid Power in Southern Africa. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations.Google Scholar
  34. Hartzenberg, T., and B. Mathe. 2005. FDI in Services in SADC: Impact on Regional Integration. In Monitoring Regional Inegration in Southern Africa Yearbook, vol. 5, ed. D. Hansohm, W. Breytenbach, T. Hartzenberg, and C. McCarthy, 9–24. Windhoek: Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit.Google Scholar
  35. Hentz, J.J. 2005. South Africa and the Logic of Regional Cooperation. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hess, R. 2001. Zimbabwe Case Study on Trade Negotiations. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  37. Holden, M. 1996. Economic and Trade Liberalization in Southern Africa. Is there a Role for South Africa? World Bank Discussion Paper, vol. 342. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  38. Iapadre, L. 2006. Regional Integration Agreements and the Geography of World Trade: Statistical Indicators and Empirical Evidence. In Assessment and Measurement of Regional Integration, ed. P. de Lombaerde, 65–85. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Iwanow, T. 2011. Impact of Derogations from Implementation of the SADC FTA Obligations on Intra-SADCTrade. Gaborone: USAID/Southern Africa.Google Scholar
  40. Jenkins, C., and L. Thomas. 2001. African Regionalism and the SADC. In European Union and New Regionalism: Regional Actors and Global Governance in A Post-Hegemonic Era, ed. M. Telò, 153–175. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  41. Jenkins, C., and L. Thomas. 2002. Foreign Direct Investment in Southern Africa: Determinants, Characteristics and Implications for Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation. Oxford and London: CSA, CREFSA-LSE.Google Scholar
  42. Jenkins, C., J. Leape, and L. Thomas. 2000. Gaining from Trade in Southern Africa. In Gaining from Trade in Southern Africa. Complementary Policies to Underpin the SADC Free Trade Area, ed. C. Jenkins, J. Leape, and L. Thomas, 1–23. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Kalaba, M., and M. Tsedu. 2008. Regional Trade Agreements, Effects and Opportunities: Southern African Development Research Network. Implementation of the SADC Trade Protocol and the Intra-SACU Trade Performance. Pretoria: Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies.Google Scholar
  44. Keet, D. 1997. Europe’s Free-Trade Plans with South Africa: Strategic Responses from and Challenges to South and Southern Africa. Development Southern Africa 14 (2): 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kennes, W. 1999. African Regional Economic Integration & the European Union. In Regionalisation in Africa: Integration & Disintegration, ed. D.C. Bach, 27–40. Oxford and Bloomington: James Currey.Google Scholar
  46. Kibble, S., P. Goodison, and B. Tsie. 1995. The Uneasy Triangle—South Africa, Southern Africa and Europe in the Post-Apartheid Era. International Relations 12 (4): 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. le Pere G, and E.N. Tjønneland. 2005. Which Way SADC? Advancing co-operation and integration in southern Africa, vol. 50. IGD Occasional Papers. Midrand: Institute for Global Dialogue.Google Scholar
  48. Lee, M.C. 2003. The Political Economy of Regionalism in Southern Africa. Lansdowne and London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  49. Lincoln, D. 2006. The Historical Geography of the Southern African Development Community’s Sugar Protocol. Illes i Imperis 9: 117–130.Google Scholar
  50. Lyakurwa, W. 1999. A Regional Case-Study of the SADC. In Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in SubSaharan Africa, ed. A. Oyejide, I. Elbadawi, and S. Yeo, 250–280. Houndmills, London, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Maiketso, J.T., and K. Sekolokwane. 2007. Countrywise Review of the Implementation of the SADC Trade Protocol. In Proceedings of the 2006 FOPRISA Annual Conference, ed. Kaunda J.M., 211–234. Gaborone: Lighthouse.Google Scholar
  52. Makgetlaneng, S. 2005. South Africa—Southern Africa Relations in the Post-Apartheid Era: The Strategic Importance of Southern Africa to the Economic and Trade Interests of South African Companies. Nordic Journal of African Studies 14 (2): 235–254.Google Scholar
  53. McCarthy, C. 1998. South African Trade and Industrial Policy in a Regional Context. In Post-Apartheid Southern Africa. Economic Challenges and Policies for the Future, ed. L. Petersson, 64–86. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Moran, T.E., E.M. Graham, and M. Blomström (eds.). 2005. Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development?. Washington: Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  55. Mthembu-Salter, G. 2008. The Cost of Non-tariff Barriers to Business along the North-South Corridor (South Africa-Zimbabwe) via Beit Bridge. A Preliminary Study, vol. 20. Trade Policy Report. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  56. Nyambe, J., and K. Schade. 2008. Progress Towards the SADC FTA and Remaining Challenges. Paper presented at the FOPRISA 3rd Annual Conference, Centurion/Pretoria.Google Scholar
  57. Odén, B. 2001. Regionalization in Southern Africa: The Role of the Dominant. In Regionalization in a Globalizing World: A Comparative Perspective on Forms, Actors and Processes, ed. M. Schulz, F. Söderbaum, and J. Öjendal, 82–99. London: ZED Books.Google Scholar
  58. Oosthuizen, G.H. 2006. The Southern African Development Community. The Organisation, its Policies and Prospects. Midrand: Institute for Global Dialogue.Google Scholar
  59. Page, S., and te Velde D.W. 2004. Foreign Direct Investment by African Countries. Paper presented at the InWent/UNCTAD Meeting on FDI in Africa, Addis Ababa.Google Scholar
  60. Pierides C. 2008. Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade in Southern Africa: Towards a Measurement Approach, vol. 21. Trade Policy Report. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  61. Pietrangeli, G. 2009. Supporting Regional Integration and Cooperation Worldwide: An Overview of the European Union Approach. In The EU and World Regionalism. The Makability of Regions in the 21st Century, ed. P. de Lombaerde, M. Schulz, 9–43. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  62. Ricardo, D. 1977. On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, Reprint ed. Hildesheim: Olms.Google Scholar
  63. Sandrey, R. 2013. An Analysis of the SADC Free Trade Area. Tralac Trade Brief. Stellenbosch: Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa.Google Scholar
  64. Sidiropoulos, E. 2002. SADC and the EU: A Brief Overview. In SADC-EU Relations. Looking Back and Moving Ahead, ed. E. Sidiropoulos, D. Games, P. Fabricius, et al., 23. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  65. Sobhee, S.K., and V. Bhowon. 2007. Deepening Integration in SADC. Mauritius—Achievements and Coming Challenges, vol. 8. Regional Integration in Southern Africa. Gaborone: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar
  66. Tavares, R., and M. Schulz. 2006. Measuring the Impact of Regional Organisations on Peace Building. In Assessment and Measurement of Regional Integration, ed. P. de Lombaerde, 232–251. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Teravaninthorn, S., and G. Raballand. 2009. Transport Prices and Costs in Africa. A Review of the Main International Corridors. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  68. Valentine, N. 1998. The SADC’s Revealed Comparative Advantage in Regional and International Trade, vol. 15. Working Paper. Cape Town: Development Policy Research Unit.Google Scholar
  69. Viner, J. 1950. The Customs Union Issue. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  70. Vogt, J. 2007. Die Regionale Integration des südlichen Afrikas. Unter besonderer Betrachtung der Southern African Development Community (SADC). Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. von Kirchbach, F., and H. Roelofsen. 1998. Trade in the Southern African Development Community: What is the Potential for increasing Exports to the Republic of South Africa? vol. 11. African Development in a Comparative Perspective. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).Google Scholar
  72. Weeks, J. 1996. Regional Cooperation and Southern African Development. Journal of Southern African Studies 22 (1): 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Weeks, J., and P. Mosley. 1998. Structural Adjustment and Tradables: A Comparative Study of Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Post-Apartheid Southern Africa. Economic Challenge and Policies for the Future, ed. L. Peterson, 171–200. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  74. Weggoro, N.C. 1995. Effects of Regional Economic Integration in Southern Africa and the Role of the Republic of South Africa: A Study of Project Coordination Approach in Industry and Trade in SADCC/SADC. Berlin: Köster.Google Scholar
  75. Zwizwai, B. 2007. Deepening Integration in SADC. Zimbabwe—Missing SADC Macroeconomic Targets, Regional Integration in Southern Africa, vol. 10. Gaborone: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.Google Scholar

Primary Sources

  1. European Commission. 1995a. Communication on Supporting Regional Economic Integration in Developing Countries. COM(1995) 212 final.Google Scholar
  2. European Commission. 1995b. European Community Support for Regional Economic Integration Efforts Among Developing Countries. COM(95) 219 final.Google Scholar
  3. SADC. 1992. Treaty of the Southern African Development Community. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  4. SADC. 1994. Industry and Trade. Annual Report of the Sector Coordination Unit. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  5. SADC. 1996a. Annual Report. June 1995–July 1996. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  6. SADC. 1996b. Decisions of the Council of Ministers. Johannesburg, South Africa, 28–29. January 1996. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  7. SADC. 1996c. Record of the Summit. Held in Maseru, Kingdom of Lesotho, 24 August 1996.Google Scholar
  8. SADC. 1999a. Consultative Conference on Trade and Investment. The Proceedings of the Consultative Conference held in Johannesburg. Republic of South Africa. 31st January—2nd February 1996. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  9. SADC. 2000a. Protocol on Trade.Google Scholar
  10. SADC. 2000b. Record of the Summit. Held in Windhoek, Republic of Namibia, 7th August 2000. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  11. SADC. 2008b. SADC Free Trade Area. Growth, Development and Wealth Creation. Handbook. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  12. SADC. 2012. Desk Assessment of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan 2005–2010. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  13. SADC—European Community. 2002. Regional Strategy Paper and Regional Indicative Programme. For the Period 2002–2007. Accessed 12 August 2015.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political SciencesJohannes Gutenberg University of MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations