The Southern African Development Community (SADC): An Analytical Overview of Its History, Policies and Institutional Framework

  • Johannes MuntschickEmail author


This chapter gives fundamental background information about the history and development of regionalism in Southern Africa and about the current state of the SADC as a modern regional integration organisation. In terms of an analytical overview, Muntschick reflects briefly on the formation, character and objectives of the region’s old regionalisms such as the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the Frontline States (FLS) and particularly the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) as predecessors of the SADC. Also, this chapter turns to the new regionalism and provides detailed information on the SADC as an organisation, its member states, key agenda and central policy areas as well as its institutional superstructure and main organs.


  1. Adelmann, M. 2003. Regionale Kooperation im südlichen Afrika. Freiburg: Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut.Google Scholar
  2. Adelmann, M. 2012. SADC—An Actor in International Relations? The External Relations of the Southern African Development Community. Freiburg: Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut.Google Scholar
  3. Amin, S., D. Chitala, and I. Mandaza (eds.). 1987. SADCC: Prospect for Disengagement and Development in Southern Africa. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  4. Amos, S. 2010. The Role of South Africa in SADC Regional Integration: The Making or Braking of the Organization. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology 5 (3): 124–131.Google Scholar
  5. Anglin, D.G. 1983. Economic Liberation and Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa: SADCC and PTA. International Organization 37 (4): 681–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christopher, A.J. 1994. The Atlas of Apartheid. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Christopher, A.J. 2001. The Atlas of Changing South Africa, 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Draper, P., and N. Khumalo. 2009. The Future of the Southern African Customs Union. Trade Negotiations Insights 8 (6): 4–5.Google Scholar
  9. Evans, M. 1984. The Front-Line States, South Africa and Southern African Security: Military Prospects and Perspectives. Zambezia XII (5): 1–19.Google Scholar
  10. Haarlov, J. 1997. Regional Cooperation and Integration Within Industry and Trade in Southern Africa. The Making of Modern Africa. Aldershot, Brookfield, and Hong Kong: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. Hammerstad, A. 2003. Defending the State or Protecting the People? SADC Security Integration at a Crossroads. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  12. Hanlon, J. 1989. SADCC in the 1990s. Development on the Front Line. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.Google Scholar
  13. Jefferis, K.R. 2007. The Process of Monetary Integration in the SADC Region. Journal of Southern African Studies 33 (1): 83–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khadiagala, G.M. 2007. Allies in Adversity. The Frontline States in Southern African Security, 1975–1993. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  15. Kirk, R., and M. Stern. 2005. The New Southern African Customs Union Agreement. World Economy 28 (2): 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kösler, A. 2010. Die Entwicklung der Southern African Development Community (SADC) als Building Block der panafrikanischen Einheit. Die Herausforderungen der doppelten Integration und wichtige Einflussfaktoren. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač.Google Scholar
  17. le Pere, G., and E.N. Tjønneland. 2005. Which Way SADC? Advancing Co-Operation and Integration in Southern Africa. Midrand: Institute for Global Dialogue.Google Scholar
  18. Mair, S., and C. Peters-Berries. 2001. Regionale Integration und Kooperation in Afrika südlich der Sahara. EAC, ECOWAS und SADC im Vergleich. Forschungsbericht des Bundesministeriums für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ), vol. 127. Bonn and München: Weltforum Verlag.Google Scholar
  19. McCarthy, C. 1999. SACU & the Rand Zone. In Regionalisation in Africa: Integration & Disintegration, ed. D.C. Bach, 159–168. Oxford and Bloomington: James Currey.Google Scholar
  20. McCarthy, C. 2003. The Southern African Customs Union in Transition. African Affairs 102 (409): 605–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McCarthy, D.M.P. 2006. International Economic Integration in Historical Perspective. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Meyns, P. 1984. The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) and Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa. In African Regional Organizations, ed. D. Mazzeo, 198–224. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Meyns, P. 1997. From Co-ordination to Integration. Institutional Aspects of the Development of SADC. In The Regionalization of the World Economy and Consequences for Southern Africa, ed. H. Dieter, 163–184. Marburg: Metropolis-Verlag.Google Scholar
  24. Meyns, P. 2000. Konflikt und Entwicklung im Südlichen Afrika. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.Google Scholar
  25. Mufune, P. 1993. The Future of Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC). Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 7 (1): 14–34.Google Scholar
  26. Muntschick, J. 2013. Explaining the Influence of Extra-Regional Actors on Regional Economic Integration in Southern Africa: The EU’s Interfering Impact on SADC and SACU. In Mapping Agency: Comparing Regionalisms in Africa, ed. U. Lorenz-Carl and M. Rempe, 77–95. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  27. Ndlovu, P.N. 2011. Campbell v Republic of Zimbabwe: A Moment of Truth for the SADC Tribunal. SADC Law Journal 1: 63–79.Google Scholar
  28. Ngoma, N. 2005. Prospects for a Security Community in Southern Africa. An Analysis of Regional Security in the Southern African Development Community. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Omari, A., and P. Macaringue. 2007. Southern African Security in Historical Perspective. In Security and Democracy in Southern Africa, ed. G. Cawthra, A. du Pisani, and A. Omari, 45–60. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Oosthuizen, G.H. 2006. The Southern African Development Community: The Organisation, its Policies and Prospects. Midrand: Institute for Global Dialogue.Google Scholar
  31. Tavlas, G.S. 2009. The Benefits and Costs of Monetary Union in Southern Africa: A critical Survey of the Literature. Journal of Economic Surveys 23 (1): 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson, L. 1992. Southern Africa. Regional Institutions and Dynamics. In Southern Africa at the Crossroads? Prospects for Stability and Development in the 1990s, ed. L. Benjamin and C. Gregory, 227–254. Rivonia: Justified Press.Google Scholar
  33. Tjønneland, E.N. 2005. Making SADC Work? Revisiting Institutional Reform. In Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa Yearbook, vol. 5, ed. D. Hansohm, W. Breytenbach, T. Hartzenberg, and C. McCarthy, 166–185. Windhoek: Namibian Economic Research Unit.Google Scholar
  34. Tsie, B. 1993. The Place and Role of Imperialism in the Conflict between CONSAS and SADCC. Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 7 (1): 138–155.Google Scholar
  35. van Nieuwkerk, A. 2012. Towards Peace and Security in Southern Africa. A Critical Analysis of the Revised Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Co-operation (SIPO) of the Southern African Development Community. Maputo: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  36. Viner J. 1950. The Customs Union Issue. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  37. Vogt, J. 2007. Die Regionale Integration des südlichen Afrikas. Unter besonderer Betrachtung der Southern African Development Community (SADC). Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Primary Sources

  1. SADC. 1992. Treaty of the Southern African Development Community. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  2. SADC. 2003. Record of the Summit. Held in Dar Es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, 25–26 August 2003.Google Scholar
  3. SADC. 2003. Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  4. SADC. 2004b. Record of the Meeting of SADC Council of Ministers held in Arusha 12–13 March 2004.Google Scholar
  5. SADC. 2005. Record of the Summit. Held in Gaborone, Republic of Botswana, 17–18 August 2005. SADC/SM/1/2005/1-A. 27.Google Scholar
  6. SADC. 2010. Revised Edition. Harmonised Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation. Maputo.Google Scholar
  7. SADC. 2012. Desk Assessment of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan 2005–2010. Gaborone: SADC Secretariat.Google Scholar
  8. SADCC. 1980. Record of the Southern African Development Coordination Summit Conference. Held at Mulungushi Conference Centre, Lusaka, on the 1st April 1980.Google Scholar
  9. SADCC. 1992. Towards Economic Integration—Policy Document Prepared for the 1992 Annual Conference. Belville: Centre for Southern African Studies.Google Scholar


  1. Mike Humphrey (EPA Support Facility Programme Manager) at SADC (09/27/2010).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political SciencesJohannes Gutenberg University of MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations