Anticipation and Child Development

  • Julie BrissonEmail author
  • Anne-Laure Sorin


Anticipation serves as an interesting clue in the field of developmental psychology since it can be assessed at a behavioral level during interaction within both social and physical environments. Assessing anticipatory behaviors leads to a better understanding of child development, providing clues to the development of a child’s cognitive skills. On a theoretical level, several questions arise. Does a child who anticipates necessarily understand the situation he is in, or does he merely make a perceptive association learned through conditioning? Can it be stated with certainty that a child who does not (or cannot) anticipate does not understand? In the case of a child’s typical development, anticipation is also one means for understanding atypical development, such as autism spectrum disorder. On a practical level, whatever the underlying explanation, anticipation deficit could be one interesting screening procedure for detecting developmental disorders as early as possible.


Anticipation Autism Behavior Development 


  1. 1.
    Nadin, M.: Anticipation—The End Is Where We Start From. Müller Verlag, Basel (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Colombo, J., Mitchell, D. W.: Infant visual habituation. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 92(2), 225–234 (2009)
  3. 3.
    Baillargeon, R., Spelke, E., Wasserman, S.: Object permanence in five-month-old infants. Cognition 20(3), 191–208 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brisson, J., Warreyn, P., Serres, J., Foussier, S., Adrien, J.-L.: Motor anticipation failure in infants with autism: a retrospective analysis of feeding situations. Autism 16(4), 420–429. (2011) (2011)
  5. 5.
    Gredebäck, G., Kochukhova, O.: Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study. Exp. Brain Res., 202(2), 493–497 (2010)
  6. 6.
    Jover, M., Schmitz, C., Bosdure, E., Chabrol, B., Assaiante, C.: Anticipatory postural adjustments in a bimanual load-lifting task in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurosci. Lett. 403(3), 271–275 (2006)
  7. 7.
    Jover, M., Schmitz, C., Bosdure, E., Chabrol, B., Assaiante, C.: Développement de l’anticipation posturale chez l’enfant sain et pathologique: revue de travaux. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l’Enfant - A.N.A.E., 81, 66–75 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmitz, C., Martineau, J., Barthélémy, C., Assaiante, C.: Motor control and children with autism: deficit of anticipatory function? Neurosci. Lett. 348(1), 17–20 (2003)
  9. 9.
    Nadin, M.: What speaks in favor of an inquiry into anticipatory processes? Prolegomena to the 2nd edition of anticipatory systems, by Robert Rosen. In: Klir, G (ed.) International Book Series on Systems Science and Systems Engineering, Springer, London, xv–lx (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schmitz, C., Forssberg, H.: Atteinte de la motricité dans l’autisme de l’enfant. In: Andres, C., Barthélémy, C., Berthoz, A., Massion, J., Rogé, B. (eds.) L’autisme, De la recherche à la pratique, 227–248. Odile Jacob, Paris (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buser, P.: Où et quand le cerveau anticipe-t-il? In: Berthoz, A., Debru, C. (eds.) Anticipation et prediction. Odile Jacob, Paris (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Libet, B.: Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious Will in voluntary action. Behav. Brain Sci. 8, 529–566 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nadin, M.: Project Seneludens.
  14. 14.
    Piaget, J.: La naissance de l’intelligence chez l’enfant. Delachaux et Niestlé, Neuchâtel (1936)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hilber, P.: Influence of the cerebellum in anticipation and mental disorders. In: Nadin, M. (ed.) Anticipation and Medicine, pp. 124–134. Springer, Cham (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Von Hofsten, C.: Predictive reaching for moving objects by human infants. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 30(3), 369–382 (1980)
  17. 17.
    Von Hofsten, C., Rosander, K.: Development of smooth pursuit tracking in young infants. Vis. Res. 37(13), 1799–1810 (1997)
  18. 18.
    Haith, M.M., Hazan, C., Goodman, G.S.: Expectation and anticipation of dynamic visual events by 3.5-month-old babies. Child Dev. 59, 467–479 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Canfield, R.L., Haith, M.M.: Young infants’ visual expectations for symmetric and asymmetric stimulus sequences. Dev. Psychol. 27(2), 198–208 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wentworth, N., Haith, M. M., Hood, R.: Spatiotemporal regularity and interevent contingencies as information for infants’ visual expectations. Infancy 3(3), 303–321 (2002) (2002)
  21. 21.
    Van Der Fits, I. B. M., Hadders-Algra, M.: The development of postural response patterns during reaching in healthy infants. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 22(4), 521–526 (1998)
  22. 22.
    Van der Fits, I. B. M., Otten, E., Klip, A. W. J., Eykern, L. A. V., Hadders-Algra, M.: The development of postural adjustments during reaching in 6- to 18-month-old infants Evidence for two transitions. Exp. Brain Res. 126(4), 517–528 (1999)
  23. 23.
    Assaiante, C., Woollacott, M., Amblard, B.: Development of postural adjustment during gait initiation: kinematic and EMG analysis. J. Motor Behav. 32(3), 211–226 (2000)
  24. 24.
    Hugon, M., Massion, J., Wiesendanger, M.: Anticipatory postural changes induced by active unloading and comparison with passive unloading in man. Pflugers Archiv Eur. J. Physiol. 393(4), 292–296 (1982)
  25. 25.
    Von Hofsten, C., Vishton, P., Spelke, E. S., Feng, Q., Rosander, K.: Predictive action in infancy: tracking and reaching for moving objects. Cognition 67(3), 255–285 (1998)
  26. 26.
    Schum, N., Jovanovic, B., Schwarzer, G.: Ten- and twelve-month-olds’ visual anticipation of orientation and size during grasping. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 109(2), 218–231 (2011)
  27. 27.
    Fagard, J., Jacquet, A. Y.: Changes in reaching and grasping objects of different sizes between 7 and 13 months of age. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 14(1), 65–78 (1996)
  28. 28.
    Knudsen, B., Henning, A., Wunsch, K., Weigelt, M., Aschersleben, G.: The end-state comfort effect in 3- to 8-year-old children in two object manipulation tasks. Cognition 3, 445 (2012)
  29. 29.
    Elsner, C., Bakker, M., Rohlfing, K., Gredebäck, G.: Infants’ online perception of give-and-take interactions. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 126, 280–294 (2014)
  30. 30.
    Baldwin, D. A.: Interpersonal understanding fuels knowledge acquisition. Current Dir. Psychol. Sci. 9(2), 40–45 (2000)
  31. 31.
    Falck-Ytter, T., Gredebäck, G., von Hofsten, C.: Infants predict other people’s action goals. Nat. Neurosci. 9(7), 878–879 (2006)
  32. 32.
    Kanakogi, Y., Itakura, S.: Developmental correspondence between action prediction and motor ability in early infancy. Nat. Commun., 2, 341 (2011)
  33. 33.
    Gredebäck, G., Melinder, A.: Infants’ understanding of everyday social interactions: a dual process account. Cognition 114(2), 197–206 (2010)
  34. 34.
    Ambrosini, E., Reddy, V., de Looper, A., Costantini, M., Lopez, B., Sinigaglia, C.: Looking Ahead: Anticipatory Gaze and Motor Ability in Infancy. PLoS ONE 8(7), e67916 (2013)
  35. 35.
    Cannon, E. N., Woodward, A. L., Gredebäck, G., von Hofsten, C., Turek, C.: Action production influences 12-month-old infants’ attention to others’ actions. Dev. Sci. 15(1), 35–42 (2012)
  36. 36.
    Gredebäck, G., Stasiewicz, D., Falck-Ytter, T., Rosander, K., von Hofsten, C.: Action type and goal type modulate goal-directed gaze shifts in 14-month-old infants. Dev. Psychol. 45(4), 1190–1194 (2009)
  37. 37.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Forti, S., Valli, A., Perego, P., Nobile, M., Crippa, A., Molteni, M.: Motor planning and control in autism. A kinematic analysis of preschool children. Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 5(2), 834–842 (2011)
  39. 39.
    Martineau, J., Schmitz, C., Assaiante, C., Blanc, R., Barthélémy, C.: Impairment of a cortical event-related desynchronisation during a bimanual load-lifting task in children with autistic disorder. Neurosci. Lett. 367, 298–303 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gliga, T., Senju, A., Pettinato, M., Charman, T., Johnson, M. H.: The BASIS team: spontaneous belief attribution in younger siblings of children on the autism spectrum. Dev. Psychol. 50(3), 903–913 (2014)
  41. 41.
    Lelord, G., Sauvage, G.: L’autisme de l’enfant. Masson, Paris (1991)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ornitz, E. M., Guthrie, D., Farley, A. H.: The early development of autistic children. J. Autism Child. Schizophr. 7(3), 207–229 (1977)
  43. 43.
    Perrot-Beaugerie, A., Hameury, L., Adrien, J.L., Garreau, B., Pepe, M., Sauvage, D.: Autisme du nourrisson et du jeune enfant: intérêt du diagnostic précoce. Annales de pédiatrie 5, 287–293 (1990)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sauvage, D.: Autisme du nourrisson et du jeune enfant. Masson, Paris (1988)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sauvage, D., Faure, M., Adrien, J.L., Hameury, L., Barthélémy, C., Perrot, A.: Autisme et films familiaux. Ann. de Psychiatr. 3(4), 418–424 (1988)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Trevarthen, C., Daniel, S.: Disorganized rhythm and synchrony: early signs of autism and Rett syndrome. Brain Dev. 27(1), S25–S34 (2005)
  47. 47.
    Gangi, D. N., Ibañez, L. V., Messinger, D. S.: Joint attention initiation with and without positive affect: risk group differences and associations with ASD symptoms. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 44(6), 1414–1424 (2014)
  48. 48.
    Parlade, M. V., Messinger, D. S., Delgado, C. E. F., Kaiser, M. Y., Van Hecke, A. V., Mundy, P. C.: Anticipatory smiling: linking early affective communication and social outcome. Infant Behav. Dev. 32(1), 33–43 (2009)
  49. 49.
    Venezia, M., Messinger, D. S., Thorp, D., Mundy, P.: The development of anticipatory smiling. Infancy 6(3), 397–406 (2004)
  50. 50.
    Frith, U., Happé, F.: Autism: beyond “theory of mind”. Cognition 50(1–3), 115–132 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mottron, L.: L’autisme: une autre intelligence. Mardaga, Liège (2004)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gepner, B.: «Malvoyance» du mouvement dans l’autisme infantile? La psychiatrie de l’enfant 44(1), 77–126 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lainé, F., Rauzy, S., Tardif, C., Gepner, B.: Slowing down the presentation of facial and body movements enhances imitation performance in children with severe autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 41(8), 983–996 (2011)
  54. 54.
    Gepner, B., Féron, F.: Autism: a world changing too fast for a mis-wired brain? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 33(8), 1227–1242 (2009)
  55. 55.
    Tardif, C., Lainé, F., Rodriguez, M., Gepner, B.: Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 37(8), 1469–1484 (2007)
  56. 56.
    Lyons, V., Fitzgerald, M.: A typical sense of self in autism spectrum disorders: a neuro-cognitive perspective. In: Fitzgerald, M. (ed.), Recent Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders, vol. I, InTech (2013)
  57. 57.
    Dapretto, M., Davies, M.S., Pfeifer, J.H., Scott, A.A., Sigman, M., Bookheimer, S.Y., Iacoboni, M.: Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nat. Neurosci. 9, 28–30 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chin, K.: Evaluation of early social contingency behavior in children with autism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Science and Engineering, vol. 70 (1-B), p. 682 (2009)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pierce, K., Conant, D., Hazin, R., Stoner, R., Desmond, J.: Preference for geometric patterns early in life as a risk factor for autism. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 68(1), 101–109 (2011). doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rogers S., Benetto L.: Le fonctionnement moteur dans le cas d’autisme. Enfance 1, 63–73 (2001)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Damasio, A.R., Maurer, R.G.: A neurological model for childhood autism. Arch. Neurol. 35(12), 777–786 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hughes, C.: Planning problems in autism at the level of motor control. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 26, 99–109 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rogers, S.J., Bennetto, L., McEvoy, R., Pennington, B.F.: Imitation and pantomime in high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Child Dev. 67, 2060–2073 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bibby, P., Eikeseth, S., Martin, N.T., Mudford, O.C., Reeves, D.: Progress and outcomes for children with autism receiving parent-managed intensive interventions. Res. Dev. Disabil. 22, 425–447 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Boyd, B.A., Odom, S.L., Humphreys, B.P., Sam, A.M.: Infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: early identification and early intervention. J. Early Interv. 32(2), 75–98 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Corsello, C.M.: Early intervention in autism. Infant Young Child. 18(2), 74–85 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fenske, E.C., Zalenski, S., Krantz, P.J., McClannahan, L.E.: Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program. Anal. Interv. Dev. Disabil. 5, 49–58 (1985)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Harris, S.L., Handleman, J.S.: Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: a four- to six-year follow-up. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 30(2), 137–142 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Makrygianni, M.K., Reed, P.: A meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of behavioural early intervention programs for children with autistic spectrum disorders. Res. Autism Spectr. Disord. 4(4), 577–593 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Woods, J.J., Whetherby, A.M.: Early identification of and intervention for infants and toddlers who are at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Lang. Speech Hear. Serv. Sch. 34(3), 180–193 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Järbrink, K.: Knapp. M.: the economic impact of autism in Britain. Autism 5(1), 7–22 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ornitz, E.M., Guthrie, D., Farley, A.H.: The early development of autistic children. J. Autism Schizophr. 7, 207–229 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Rogers, S.J., DiLalla, D.L.: Age of symptom onset in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 29(6), 863–872 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurosciences de la Cognition et de l’AffectivitéUniversité de RouenRouenFrance

Personalised recommendations