Advertisement

Advanced Chip-to-Substrate Connections

  • Paul A. KohlEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Transistor scaling, shrinking the critical dimensions of the transistor, has led to continuous improvements in system performance and cost. Higher density of the transistors and larger chip size has also led to new challenges for chip-to-substrate connections. The pace of change in packaging and chip-to-substrate connections has accelerated because off-chip issues are increasingly a limiting factor in product cost and performance. Chip-to-substrate connections are challenged on many fronts, including number of signal input-output (I/O) connections, I/O that operate at high speed, power and ground I/O, and low cost.

This chapter examines various techniques and structures that have been designed to address these challenges. The mechanical compliance and electrical performance modeling of the interconnect structures is important in determining the geometry, materials, and processing necessary for an application. Various approaches have been taken to satisfy both the mechanical and electrical needs for these I/O connections. Mechanically compliant structures based on traditional solder-bonded connections can drastically improve thermomechanical reliability but may compromise electrical performance. Additional structures improve upon the compliance of the solder ball by capping a pillar structure with solder, but still require the reliable protection of underfill. More high performance and long-term improvements to satisfy both mechanical and electrical needs such as interconnects composed entirely of copper are also discussed. Finally, the future needs projected by the ITRS for ultra-high off-chip frequency and thermal management are addressed with respect to chip-to-substrate interconnects.

Keywords

Input/output Compliant I/O Copper interconnects Solder free Electronic packaging Flip chip 

References

  1. 1.
    Horowitz SJ, Felten JJ, Gerry DJ (1979) IEEE Trans Compon Hybrid Manufact Technol CHMT-2(4):460–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khoury SL, Burkhard DJ, Galloway DP, Scharr TA (1990) Proceedings of electronic components and technology conference, vol. 1, pp 768–776Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pascariu G, Cronin P, Crowley D (2003) Proceedings of electronics manufacturing technology symposium, pp 423–426Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wolflick P, Feldmann K (2002) Proceedings of electronics manufacturing technology symposium, pp 27–34Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ITRS (2013) Process integration, devices, and structures. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2013. SIA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kumar V, Sharma R, Uzunlar E, Zheng L, Bashifullah R, Kohl P, Bakir M, Naeemi A (2014) IEEE Trans Compon Packag Manufact Technol 4(8):1335–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muramatsu A, Hashimoto M, Onodera H (2005) IEICE Trans Fund Electron Comm Comput Sci 88(12):3564–3572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shakeri K, Bakir M, Meindl JD (2004) Proceedings of the IEEE SOC conference, pp 78–81Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becker WD, Eckhardt J, Frech RW, Katopis GA, Klink E, McAllister MF, McNamara TG, Muench P, Richter SR, Smith HH (1998) IEEE Trans Compon Packag Manufact Technol 21(2):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mandhana OP (2004) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 27(1):107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Katopis GA (1985) Proc IEEE 73(9):1405–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, CT, Zhao J, Chen Q (2001) Proceedings of electronic components and technology conference, pp 1102–1106Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grover FW (1962) Inductance calculations working formulas and tables. Dover, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Troster G (1999) Proceedings of design, automation, and test in Europe conference and exhibition, pp 423–424Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jordan EC, Balmain KG (2003) Electromagnetic waves and radiating systems, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kraus JD (1992) Electromagnetics, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, HightstownzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Pozar DM (1998) Microwave engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    He A, Osborn T, Allen SAB, Kohl PA (2007) J Electrochem Soc 154(6):F106–F110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tummala RR (2001) Fundamentals of microsystems packaging. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang Z, Wong CP (2004) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 27(3):515–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hillman C, Rogers K, Dasgupta A, Pecht M, Dusek R, Lorence B (1999) Circuit World 25(3):28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang Z, Sitaraman SK, Wong CP (2004) IEEE Trans Electron Packag Manufact 27(1):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhai CJ, Sidharth R, Blish II (2003) IEEE Trans Dev Mater Reliab 3(4):207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mercado LL, Sarihan V, Fiorenzo R (2004) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 27(1):151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Perkins A, Sitaraman SK (2003) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 422–430Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yeo A, Lee C, Pang JHL (2004) Proceedings of thermal and mechanical simulation and experiments in micro-electronics and micro-systems conference, pp 549–555Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fan X, Pei M, Bhatti PK (2006) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 972–980Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang G, Ho PS, Groothuis S (2002) Microelectron Reliab 45:1079–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tunga K, Kacker K, Pucha RV, Sitaraman SK (2004) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 1579–1585Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Classe FC, Sitaraman SK (2004) Proceedings of the electronics packaging technology conference, pp 82–89Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zahn BA (2002) Proceedings of the international electronics manufacturing technology symposium, pp 274–284Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pang JHL (2011) Thermo-mechanical reliability test and analysis. Springer, New York, pp 89–122Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Che FX, Pang JHL (2013) IEEE Trans Dev Mater Reliab 13(1):36–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shen J, Zhai D, Cao Z, Zhao M, Pu Y (2014) J Electron Mater 43(2):567–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Raghaven S, Schmadlak I, Leal G, Sitaraman SK (2014) IEEE Trans Dev Mater Reliab 14(1):57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garrou P (1999) Wafer level chip scale packing. In: Semi Chip Scale International ’99, p D-1Google Scholar
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
    Longford A, James D (2006) Presentation in advance packaging conference, Semicon Europa, April 2006Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bakir M, Reed H, Thacker H, Patel C, Kohl P, Martin K, Meindl J (2003) IEEE Trans Electron Dev 50(10):2039–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dang B, Bakir M, Patel C, Thacker H, Meindl J (2006) J Microelectromech Syst 15(5):523–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bhusari D, Reed H, Wedlake M, Padovani A, Bidstrup-Allen SA, Kohl PA (2001) J Microelectromech Syst 10(3):400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bakir MS, Reed HA, Mule AV, Kohl PA, Martin KP, Meindl JD (2002) IEEE custom integrated circuits conference, Orlando, FL, May 2002Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhu Q, Ma L, Sitaraman SK (2002) Proceedings of international conference on thermal, mechanics and thermo-mechanical phenomena in electronic systems, Orlando, FL, 29 May 2002Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhu Q, Ma L, Sitaraman SK (2001) Proceedings of InterPack, The Pacific Rim International, intersociety, electronic packaging technical/business conference & exhibition, Kauai, 8–13 July 2001Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhu Q, Ma L, Sitaraman S (2004) J Electron Packag 126(2):237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kacker K, Sokol T, Sitaraman SK (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components technology conference, pp 1678–1684Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Arunasalam P, Ackler H, Sammakia B (2006) Proceedings of the electronics components and technology conference, pp 1147–1153Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liao EB, Tay AAO, Ang SST, Fend HH, Nagarajan R, Kripesh V, Kumar R, Iyer MK (2006) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 1246–1250Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xu P, Pfeiffenberger SH, Ellis CD, Hamilton MC (2014) J Microelectromech Syst 23(5):1219–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wang T, Tung F, Foo L, Dutta V (2001) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 945–949Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rao VS, Tay AAO, Kripesh V, Lim CT, Yoon SW (2004) Proceedings of the electronic packaging technology conference, pp 444–449Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tummala RR, Raj PM, Aggarwal A, Mehrotra G, Koh SW, Bansal S (2006) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 102–111Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aggarwal A, Raj PM, Lee BW, Yim MJ, Tambawala A, Iyer M, Swaminathan M, Wong CP, Tummala R (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 905–913Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Aggarwal AO, Raj PM, Tummala RR (2007) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 30(3):384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Huffman A, Lueck M, Bower C, Temple D (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components technology conference, pp 1589–1596Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Iwasaki T, Watanabe M, Baba S, Hatanaka Y, Idaka S, Yokoyama Y, Kimura M (2006) Proceedings of the electronic components technology conference, pp 1216–1222Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sakuma K, Andry PS, Tsang CK, Wright SL, Dang B, Patel CS, Webb BC, Maria J, Sprogis EJ, Kang SK, Polastre RJ, Horton RR, Knickerbocker JU (2008) IBM J Res Dev 32(6):611–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Young WB, Yang WL (2006) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 29(3):647–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lui S, Chen W (2010) IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 33(4):819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fan A, Rahman A, Reif R (1999) Electrochem Solid State Lett 2(10):534–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chen KN, Fan A, Tan CS, Reif R (2006) J Electron Mater 35(2):230–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chen KN, Tan CS, Fan A, Reif R (2005) J Electron Mater 34(12):1464–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chen KN, Tan CS, Fan A, Reif R (2004) Electrochem Solid State Lett 7(1):G14–G16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tang Y, Chang Y, Chen K (2012) Microelectron Reliab 52:312–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen KN, Chang SM, Shen LC, Reif R (2006) J Electron Mater 35(5):1082–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rebhan R, Hingerl K (2015) J Appl Phys 118:135301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tan C, Lim D, Ang X, Wei J, Leong KC (2012) Microelectron Reliab 52:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tan CS, Reif R (2005) Electrochem Solid State Lett 8(6):G147–G149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kim TH, Howlander MMR, Itoh T, Suga T (2003) J Vac Sci Technol A 21(2):449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shigetou A, Itoh T, Matsuo M, Hayasaka N, Okumura K, Suga T (2006) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 29(2):218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schlesinger M, Paunovic M (2000) Modern electroplating, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Andricacos P, Uzoh C, Dukovic JO, Horkans J, Deligianni H (1998) IBM J Res Dev 42(5):567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    He A, Osborn T, Allen SAB, Kohl PA (2006) Electrochem Solid State Lett 9(12):C192–C195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Koo H-C, Saha R, Kohl PA (2012) J Electrochem Soc 159(5):D319–D322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Koo H-C, Saha R, Kohl PA (2011) J Electrochem Soc 158(12):D698–D703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    An PN, Kohl PA (2010) IEEE Trans Compon Packag Technol 33(3):621–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Osborn T, Galiba N, Kohl PA (2009) J Electrochem Soc 156(7):D226–D230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Osborn A, He N, Galiba P, Kohl A (2008) J Electrochem Soc 155(4):D308–D313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    He A, Osborn T, Allen SA, Kohl PA (2008) J Electrochem Soc 155(4):D314–D322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gao S, Holmes AS (2006) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 29(4):725–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kang SY, Ju TH, Lee YC (1993) Proceedings of the electronic components technology conference, pp 877–882Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Watanabe N, Asano T (2006) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, IEEE, pp 125–130Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Watanabe N, Asano T (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, IEEE, pp 622–626Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yokoshima T, Yamaji Y, Oosato H, Tamura Y, Kikuchi K, Nakagawa H, Aoyagi M (2007) Electrochem Solid State Lett 10(9):D92–D94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Honma H, Watanabe H, Kobayashi T (1994) J Electrochem Soc 141(7):1791–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yokoshima T, Nakamura S, Kaneko D, Osaka T, Takefusa S, Tanaka A (2002) J Electrochem Soc 149(8):C375–C382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yamaji Y, Yokoshima T, Oosato H, Igawa N, Tamura Y, Kikuchi K, Nakagawa H, Aoyagi M (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components and technology conference, pp 898–904Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Miller DAB (2002) Proc IEEE 88(6):728–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wu WC, Huang RB, Hsu HT, Chang EY, Hsu LH, Huang CH, Hu YC, Lai MI (2005) Proceedings of the APMCGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wu WC, Chang EY, Huang CH, Hsu LS, Starski JP, Zirath H (2007) Electron Lett 43:17Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Meindl JD, Davis JA, Zarkesh-Ha P, Patel CS, Martin KP, Kohl PA (2002) IBM J Res Dev 46(2/3):245–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bakir MS, Dang B, Ogunsola OOA, Sarvari R, Meindl JD (2007) IEEE Trans Adv Packag 54(9):2426–2437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tuckerman DB, Pease RFW (1981) IEEE Electron Dev Lett 2(5):126–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dang B, Bakir MS, Meindl JD (2006) IEEE Electron Dev Lett 27(2):117–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dang B, Joseph P, Bakir MS, Spencer T, Kohl PA, Meindl JD (2005) Proceedings of the international interconnect technology conference, pp 180–182Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Zhao M, Huang ZR (2007) Proceedings of the electronic components technology conference, pp 2017–2023Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Green C, Kottke P, Han X, Woodrum C, Sarvey T, asrar P, Zhang X, Joshi Y, Fedorov A, Sitaraman S, Bakir M (2015) J Electron Packag 137(4):040802CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations