- 576 Downloads
Juvenile crime in India is relatively low compared to many Western countries. The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which compiles juvenile crime data in India, reports that in 2014 juvenile crime accounted for 1–1.2 % of all crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and represented less than 1 % of all Special and Local Laws (SLL). This chapter discusses the causes of juvenile crime in India, the changing philosophy of the juvenile justice system, the functions of special juvenile police units, and the role of Juvenile Justice Boards and Child Welfare Committees in addressing the needs of different juvenile populations.
KeywordsIndia Juvenile Justice Act Children in conflict with law Child Welfare Committee Juvenile Justice Board
- Adenwalla, M. (2006). Child protection and juvenile justice system for juvenile in conflict with law. Mumbai: Childline India Foundation.Google Scholar
- Barcellos, S. H., Carvalho, L., & Lleras-muney, A. (2010). Working paper: Child gender and investments in India. Rand Labor and Population. Retrieved May 18, 2016, from https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2010/RAND_WR756.pdf.
- Bhasin, V. K. (2011, September). The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Act, 2011. Retrieved from http://megpolice.gov.in/acts/central/juvenile_justice_care-protection_children_amendment_act_2011.pdf.
- Bhattacharya, S., & Bhattacharya, S. (2015). Human rights violations of children in India: An overview. International Journal of Child Adolescent Heath, 8(1), 51–70.Google Scholar
- Census of India. (2011). The Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved December 1, 2015, from http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/Searchdata.aspx.
- Chakraborty, T. (n.d.). Juvenile justice in India. New Delhi, India: Institute of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
- Gupta, N. K. (2015). The guardian state and the child: Juvenile justice system in India. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 4(4), 261–270.Google Scholar
- Hartjen, C., & Kethineni, S. (1996). Comparative delinquency in India and the United States. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
- Haveripet, P. (2013). Causes and consequences of juvenile delinquency in India. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5(3), 29–31.Google Scholar
- Janeksela, G. (1991). Descriptive analysis of five juvenile justice systems: United States, Scotland, England, India, and South Africa. International Review of Modern Sociology, 21, 1–19.Google Scholar
- Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act. (2000). Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www.law.yale.edu/rcw/rcw/jurisdictions/assc/india/India_Juv_Just.pdf.
- Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Amendment Act, 2006 (No. 33 of 2006). Retrieved December 10, 2015, from https://www.childlineindia.org.in/CP-CR-Downloads/JJAct2006.pdf.
- Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act. (2015). Ministry of Women & Child Development. Retrieved December 5, 2016, from http://wcd.nic.in/acts/juvenile-justice-care-and-protection-children-act-2015.
- Juvenile Justice Act (JJA). (1986). Introduction. Retrieved October 21, 2010, from http://www.vakilno1.com/bareacts/juvenilejusticeact/juvenilejusticeact.htm.
- Kethineni, S., & Braithwaite, J. (2014). Toward a compliance model: The Indian Supreme Court and the attempted revolution in child rights. In N. P. Unnithan (Ed.), Crime and justice in India (pp. 300–325). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kumari, V. (2004). The juvenile justice system in India: From welfare to rights. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Menon, M. N. R. (1990). The rights of the child: Law, policy and enforcement. A background paper prepared for the National Law School of India University, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Home Affairs. (2015, July 22). Children missing from Delhi. Retrieved from http://mha1.nic.in/par2013/par2015-pdfs/rs-220715/202.pdf.
- National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). (2014). Crime in 2014. The Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.ncrb.gov.in/.
- National Human Rights Commission. (2006, July). Annual report 2004–2005. New Delhi, India. Retrieved from http://nhrc.nic.in/Documents/AR/AR04-05ENG.pdf.
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1985). United Nations standard minimum rules for the administration of juvenile justice ("The Beijing Rules") (1985). Retrieved February 15, 2011, from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/beijingrules.pdf.
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (1990). United Nations Rules for the protection of juveniles deprived of their liberty (1990). Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/45/a45r113.htm.
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2011). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved February 20, 2011, from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.
- Prohibition of Child Marriage Act. (2006). NO. 6 of 2007 [10th January 2007]. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/trafficking/india.childmar.07.pdf.
- PRS Legislative Research. (2015).Google Scholar
- Sahmey, K. (2013). A study on factors underlying juvenile delinquency and positive youth development programs. Odisha, India: Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology Rourkela. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/4634/1/411HS1010.pdf.
- Sharma, D. (2014). The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000: Protection, rehabilitation, and reform. In N. P. Unnithan (Ed.), Crime and justice in India (pp. 389–403). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Sharma, P. C. (n.d.). Report of the NHRC Committee on missing children. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from https://childlineindia.org.in/CP-CR-Downloads/Missing%20Child%20report%20NHRC.pdf.
- Sheela Barse v. Union of India, (1986) 3 SCC (Cri) 352; 1986 Cri LJ 1736 (SC).Google Scholar
- Srinivasan, M. (2010). Existing mechanisms to ensure child participation: An assessment in the State of Tamil Nadu. Chennai: United Nations Children’s Fund.Google Scholar
- Srivastava, N. (2004). The status of the child in India in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Social Change, 34(3), 113–124.Google Scholar
- The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act. (1986). Retrieved December 20, 2015, from http://bba.org.in/sites/default/files/Child%20Labour%20_Prohibition%20_%20Regulation_%20Act,%201986.pdf.
- The Gazette of India. (2000, December 30). The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (Act No.56 of 2000). Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from http://khoyapaya.gov.in/mpp/resources/Juvenile%20Justice%20Act%202000.pdf.
- The Gazette of India. (2016, January 16). The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (Act No.2 of 2016). Ministry of Law, Justice. Retrieved June 5, 2016, from http://wcd.nic.in/sites/default/files/JJ%20Act%2C%202015%20_0.pdf.
- Tiwary, D. (2014, August 7). One lakh children go missing in India every year: Home ministry. Times of India. Retrieved December 2, 2015, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/One-lakh-children-go-missing-in-India-every-year-Home-ministry/articleshow/39779841.cms.
- UNICEF. (1979). The year of the child. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from http://www.unicef.org/about/history/files/Child-Nation-M-Black-Ch15-p353-377-year-or-child.pdf.
- UNICEF. (2004). The state of the world’s children—2005. New York: UNICEF House.Google Scholar
- UNICEF. (2011a, May). The situation of children in India: A profile. New Delhi, India. United Nations Children’s Fund. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from http://unicef.in/Uploads/Publications/Resources/pub_doc36.pdf.
- UNICEF. (2011b). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30229.html.
- United Nations General Assembly (1985). United Nations standard minimum rules for the administration of juvenile justice (“The Beijing Rules”) resolution. A/RES/40/33, Retrieved October 14, 2010, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3b00f2203c.html
- United Nations Treaty Collection. (2011). Chapter IV: Human rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved February 19, 2011, from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11&chapter=4&lang=en.
- Van Bueren, G. (1999). Childhood abused: Protecting children against torture, cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment and punishment. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Van Bueren, G., & Tootell, A. M. (2007). United Nations standard minimum rules for the administration of juvenile justice (Beijing Rules). Retrieved February 15, 2001, from http://www.child.abuse.com/childhouse/children_rights/dci_be29.html.