Advertisement

Canada

  • Nicholas BalaEmail author
  • Peter J. Carrington
Chapter

Abstract

Prior to 2003, Canada discretionary approach to youth justice resulted in the country having one of the highest rates in the world for use of courts and custody for adolescent offenders. The Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) came into force in 2003 and has significantly structured the discretion of police, prosecutors and judges, and been accompanied by very substantial reductions in youth charging and use of custody for adolescents and more use of community-based sentencing options; youth crime has fallen slightly. Canada’s federal parliament has jurisdiction over juvenile justice legislation, while provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the establishment of youth courts and the provision of services for young offenders, as well as jurisdiction over child welfare, so there is significant variation in the implementation of the law across Canada. There are concerns in Canada about such issues as overrepresentation of visible minority and Aboriginal youth in custody.

Keywords

Juvenile justice, Canada Youth Criminal Justice Act (Canada) Community dispositions for youth, increased use Decline in youth custody 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter reports analyses of data provided by Statistics Canada. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the views of Statistics Canada. Preparation of this chapter was supported by a research grant to the second author from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

References

  1. Bala, N. (2015). Reducing use of courts & custody for youth offenders despite ‘get tough’ on crime talk: The Youth Criminal Justice Act and Bill C-10. Saskatchewan Law Review, 78(1), 127–160.Google Scholar
  2. Bala, N., & Anand, S. (2012). Youth Criminal Justice Law (3rd ed.). Toronto: Irwin Law.Google Scholar
  3. Bala, N., Carrington, P. J., & Roberts, J. V. (2009). Evaluating the Youth Criminal Justice Act after five years: A qualified success. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 51(2), 131–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell, S. J. (2015). Young offenders and youth justice (5th ed.). Toronto: Nelson Education.Google Scholar
  5. Blackwell, B. S., Sellers, C. S., & Schlaupitz, S. M. (2002). A power-control theory of vulnerability to crime and adolescent role exits—Revisited. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 39(2), 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broidy, L. M., Nagin, D. S., Tremblay, R. E., Bates, J. E., Brame, B., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2003). Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: A six-site, cross-national study. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Browning, S., & Erickson, P. (2012). Neighbourhood variation in the link between alcohol use and violence among Canadian adolescents. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54(2), 169–201. doi: 10.3138/cjccj.2009.E.37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canada. (2007). Pre-trial detention under the Youth Criminal Justice Act: A consultation paper. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.Google Scholar
  9. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. (2013). Uniform crime reporting incident-based survey. Unpublished manual.Google Scholar
  10. Carrington, P. J. (1998). Factors affecting police diversion of young offenders: A statistical analysis. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.Google Scholar
  11. Carrington, P. J. (2002). Group crime in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44(3), 277–315.Google Scholar
  12. Carrington, P. J. (2007). The development of police-reported delinquency among Canadian youth born in 1987 and 1990. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  13. Carrington, P. J. (2009). Co-offending and the development of the delinquent career. Criminology, 47(4), 1295–1329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrington, P. J. (2013). Trends in the seriousness of youth crime in Canada, 1984–2011. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 55(2), 293–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carrington, P. J. (2015a). Trends in serious and violent youth crime in Canada, 1986–2011. In R. R. Corrado, A. Leschied, P. Lussier, & J. Whatley (Eds.), Serious and violent young offenders and youth criminal justice: A Canadian perspective (pp. 29–44). Burnaby, BC: SFU Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Carrington, P. J. (2015b). The structure of age homophily in co-offending groups. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 31(3), 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrington, P. J. (2015c). Gender and age segregation and stratification in criminal collaborations. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31, 1–37.Google Scholar
  18. Carrington, P. J., Brennan, S., Matarazzo, A., & Radulescu, M. (2013). Co-offending in Canada, 2011. St. Louis: Juristat.Google Scholar
  19. Carrington, P. J., Matarazzo, A., & de Souza, P. (2005). Court careers of a Canadian birth cohort. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  20. Carrington, P. J., Moyer, S., & Kopelman, F. (1988). Factors affecting pre-dispositional detention and release under the Juvenile Delinquents Act. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16, 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carrington, P. J., Roberts, J. V., & Davis-Barron, S. (2011). The last chance sanction in youth court: Exploring the deferred custody and supervision order. Canadian Criminal Law Review, 15, 299–336.Google Scholar
  22. Carrington, P. J., & Schulenberg, J. L. (2003). Police discretion with young offenders. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.Google Scholar
  23. Carrington, P. J., & Schulenberg, J. L. (2004). Prior police contacts and police discretion with apprehended youth. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  24. Carrington, P. J., & van Mastrigt, S. B. (2013). Co-offending in Canada, England and the United States: A cross-national comparison. Global Crime, 14(2–3), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Corrado, R., & Freedman, L. (2011). Risk profiles, trajectories, and intervention points for serious and chronic young offenders. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 2(2.1), 197–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corrado, R. R., & Lussier, P. (2011). Early developmental prevention of antisocial behaviour. International Journal of Child, Youth & Family Studies, 2(1–2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corrado, R. R., & McCuish, E. C. (2015). The development of early onset, chronic, and versatile offending: The role of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and mediating factors. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health, 8(2), 241.Google Scholar
  28. Corrado, R. R., Vincent, G. M., Hart, S. D., & Cohen, I. M. (2004). Predictive validity of the psychopathy checklist: Youth version for general and violent recidivism. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Day, D. M., Bevc, I., Duchesne, T., Rosenthal, J. S., Rossman, L., & Theodor, F. (2007). Comparison of adult offense prediction methods based on juvenile offense trajectories using cross-validation. Advances and Applications in Statistics, 7, 1–46.Google Scholar
  30. Day, D. M., Nielsen, J. D., Ward, A. K., Sun, Y., Rosenthal, J. S., Duchesne, T., et al. (2012). Long-term follow-up of criminal activity with adjudicated youth in Ontario: Identifying offence trajectories and predictors/correlates of trajectory group membership. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54(4), 377–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doob, A., & Cesaroni, C. (2010). Responding to youth crime in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  32. Dorais, M., & Corriveau, P. (2009). Gangs and girls: Understanding juvenile prostitution. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fitzgerald, R. T., & Carrington, P. J. (2008). The neighbourhood context of urban aboriginal crime 1. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 50(5), 523–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gannon, M., & Mihorean, K. (2005). Criminal victimization in Canada, 2004. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  35. Gordon, R. (1995). Street gangs in vancouver. In J. Creechan & R. A. Silverman (Eds.), Canadian delinquency. Toronto: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  36. Gordon, R. (2001). Street gangs and criminal business organizations: A Canadian perspective. In R. C. Smandych (Ed.), Youth crime: Varieties, theories, and prevention (pp. 248–265). Toronto: Harcourt Canada.Google Scholar
  37. Hagan, J., Gillis, A. R., & Simpson, J. (1985). The class structure of gender and delinquency: Toward a power-control theory of common delinquent behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 90(6), 1151–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hagan, J., Simpson, J., & Gillis, A. R. (1987). Class in the household: A power-control theory of gender and delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 92(4), 788–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagan, J., Simpson, J., & Gillis, A. R. (1988). Feminist scholarship, relational and instrumental control, and a power-control theory of gender and delinquency. British Journal of Sociology, 39(3), 301–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamilton, A., & Sinclair, C. (1991). Report of the aboriginal justice inquiry of Manitoba. Vol. 1. The justice system and aboriginal people. Winnipeg: Queen’s Publisher.Google Scholar
  41. Jacob, J. C. (2006). Male and female youth crime in Canadian communities: Assessing the applicability of social disorganization theory. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48(1), 31–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacob, J. C. (2010). Pathways of crime and delinquency: A life-course analysis of informal social control of antisocial behaviour. Waterloo, ON: University of Waterloo.Google Scholar
  43. Jensen, G. F., & Thompson, K. (1990). What’s class got to do with it? A further examination of power-control theory. American Journal of Sociology, 95(4), 1009–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kazemian, L., LeBlanc, M., Farrington, D. P., & Pease, K. (2007). Patterns of residual criminal careers among a sample of adjudicated French-Canadian males. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 49(3), 307–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. La Prairie, C. (1994). Seen but not heard: Native people in the inner city. Ottawa: Department of Justice Canada.Google Scholar
  46. La Prairie, C. (1995). Seen but not heard: Native people in four Canadian inner cities. The Journal of Human Justice, 6(2), 30–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. La Prairie, C. (2002). Aboriginal over-representation in the criminal justice system: A tale of nine cities. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44, 181–208.Google Scholar
  48. Landry, N. E. (2008). The mean girl motive: Negotiating power and femininity. Halifax: Brunswick Books.Google Scholar
  49. Le Blanc, M. (2003). Évolution de la délinquance cachée et officielle chez les adolescents au Québec entre les années 1930 et 2000. In M. Le Blanc, M. Ouimet, & D. Szabo (Eds.), Traité de criminologie empirique. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
  50. Le Blanc, M. (2005a). Self-control and social control of deviant behavior in context: Development and interactions along the life course. In P. O. Wikström & R. Sampson (Eds.), The social contexts of pathways in crime: Development, context, and mechanisms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Le Blanc, M. (2005b). An integrative personal control theory of deviant behavior answers to contemporary empirical and theoretical developmental criminology issues. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life course theories of offending (pp. 125–164). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  52. Le Blanc, M., & Fréchette, M. (1989). Male criminal activity from childhood through youth: Multilevel and developmental perspectives. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Le Blanc, M., & Loeber, R. (1998). Developmental criminology updated. Crime and Justice, 23, 115–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee, N. (1999). Youth crime trends in British Columbia. Forum on Corrections Research, 11(2), 3–6.Google Scholar
  55. MacRae, L. D., Bertrand, L. D., Paetsch, J. J., Hornick, J. P., & DeGusti, B. (2009). A study of youth reoffending in Calgary. Calgary, AL: Canadian Research Institute for Law and the Family.Google Scholar
  56. MacRae, L. D., Bertrand, L. D., Paetsch, J. J., & Hornick, J. P. (2011). Relating risk and protective factors to youth reoffending: A two-year follow-up. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 2(2.1), 172–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mathews, F. (1993). Youth gangs on youth gangs. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.Google Scholar
  58. McCuish, E. C., Corrado, R. R., Hart, S. D., & DeLisi, M. (2015). The role of symptoms of psychopathy in persistent violence over the criminal career into full adulthood. Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(4), 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morash, M., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1991). A reformulation and partial test of the power control theory of delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 8(3), 347–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moyer, S., Kopelman, F., & Carrington, P. J. (1986a). Correlates of the pre-dispositional detention of juveniles in five Canadian cities. Report to the Solicitor General of Canada.Google Scholar
  61. Moyer, S., Kopelman, F., & Carrington, P. J. (1986b). The conformity of juvenile court judicial interim release practices to the provisions of the criminal code. Report to the Solicitor General of Canada.Google Scholar
  62. Nagin, D., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70(5), 1181–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nakhaie, M. R., Silverman, R. A., & LaGrange, T. C. (2000a). Self-control and resistance to school. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 37(4), 443–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nakhaie, M. R., Silverman, R. A., & LaGrange, T. C. (2000b). Self-control and social control: An examination of gender, ethnicity, class and delinquency. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 25(1), 35–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Perrault, S. (2015). Criminal victimization in Canada, 2014. St. Louis: Juristat.Google Scholar
  66. Ratner, R. (1996). In cultural limbo: Adolescent aboriginals in the urban life-world. In G. M. O'Bireck (Ed.), Not a kid anymore: Canadian youth, crime and subcultures (pp. 185–202). Toronto: Nelson Canada.Google Scholar
  67. Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1931). Social factors in juvenile delinquency. Report on the Causes of Crime (Vol. II). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  69. Shaw, C. R., McKay, H. D., & Hayner, N. S. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  70. Smith-Moncrieffe, D. (2013). Youth gang prevention fund projects: What did we learn about what works in preventing gang involvement? Ottawa: Public Safety Canada.Google Scholar
  71. Sprott, J. B. (2012). The persistence of status offences in the youth justice system. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 54(3), 309–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sprott, J. B., & Doob, A. N. (2009). Justice for girls? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sprott, J. B., & Doob, A. N. (2010). Gendered treatment: Girls and treatment orders in bail court. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 52(4), 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Statistics Canada. (2001). Children and youth in Canada (Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics Profile Series). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  75. Statistics Canada. (2015a). Uniform crime reporting survey. Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&Id=243837.Google Scholar
  76. Statistics Canada. (2015b). CANSIM. Retrieved from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a01?lang=eng.Google Scholar
  77. Tanner, J., & Wortley, S. (2002). The Toronto youth leisure and victimization survey: Final report. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  78. Totten, M. D. (2000). Guys, gangs, and girlfriend abuse. Toronto: Broadview Press.Google Scholar
  79. Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24(2), 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Seguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., et al. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114(1), e43–e50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the truth and reconciliation commission of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/File/2015/Findings/Exec_Summary_2015_05_31_web_o.pdf
  82. United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, Canada. (January 4, 2012). CRC/C/CAN/3-4.Google Scholar
  83. Vincent, G. M., Vitacco, M. J., Grisso, T., & Corrado, R. R. (2003). Subtypes of adolescent offenders: Affective traits and antisocial behavior patterns. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 21(6), 695–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ward, A. K., Day, D. M., Bevc, I., Sun, Y., Rosenthal, J. S., & Duchesne, T. (2010). Criminal trajectories and risk factors in a Canadian sample of offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(11), 1278–1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wong, S. K. (1999). Acculturation, peer relations, and delinquent behavior of Chinese-Canadian youth. Adolescence, 34(133), 107.Google Scholar
  86. Yessine, A. K., & Bonta, J. (2009). The offending trajectories of youthful aboriginal offenders. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 51(4), 435–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. York, G. (1990). The dispossessed: Life and death in native Canada. London: Vintage UK.Google Scholar
  88. Zeman, K., & Bressan, A. (2008). Factors associated with youth delinquency and victimization in Toronto, 2006. Crime and Justice Research Paper Series No. 14. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar

Statutes and Treaties

  1. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part 1 of the Constitution Act, enacted as Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982, 1982, c. 11 (U.K.).Google Scholar
  2. Safe Streets and Communities Act, S.C. 2012, c.1.Google Scholar
  3. Convention on the Rights of the Child, Can. T.S. 1992 No. 3.Google Scholar
  4. Juvenile Delinquents Act, R.S.C. 1970, Chap. J-3Google Scholar
  5. Young Offenders Act, S.C. 1980-81-82-83, c. 110.Google Scholar
  6. Youth Criminal Justice Act, S.C. 2002, c.1Google Scholar

Case Law

  1. R v C.D., 2005 SCC 61 (2005a)Google Scholar
  2. R v D.B., 2008 SCC 25Google Scholar
  3. R. v. B.W.P., [2006] 1 S.C.R. 941Google Scholar
  4. R. v. C.D., 2005 SCC 78 (2005b)Google Scholar
  5. R. v. L.T.H., 2008 SCC 49Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.University of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations