Advertisement

England and Wales

  • Tim BatemanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The recent history of juvenile justice in England and Wales—more commonly referred to as ‘youth justice’—has been characterized by dramatic swings in underlying philosophies, reinforced by legislative change, that have had concrete implications for children in conflict with the law. Thus, the ‘orthodoxy’ of the 1980s that children should wherever possible be diverted from criminal justice processes, and that incarceration should be used sparingly, rapidly gave way in the subsequent decade to a more punitive response to youth offending premised on early formal intervention and a spiraling use of child custody. In more recent years, policy makers have strived to reduce the number of children entering the system for the first time and to shrink the custodial population in something of a reversion to an earlier era, albeit with significant differences of nuance.

The current chapter outlines the existing framework for dealing with children who break the law in England and Wales, locating current provisions within the context of the rapid shifts of the last 30 years. It argues that it is hard to identify an underlying, evidence-based, rationale for the various twists and turns and notes that the arrangements described may be subject to significant further amendment as a consequence of a major review of youth justice due to report to the government in the summer of 2016.

Keywords

Cyclical juvenile justice Diversion Child imprisonment Youth offending teams Youth Justice Board 

References

  1. Acton, E. (2015). Restorative justice a postcode lottery?—Availability and quality of service. Safer Communities, 14(3), 120–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthur, R. (2010). Young offenders and the law. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Ashford, M., Chard, A., & Redhouse, N. (2006). Defending young people in the criminal justice system (3rd ed.). London: Legal Action Group.Google Scholar
  4. Audit Commission. (2004). Youth justice 2004: A review of the reformed youth justice system. London: Audit Commission.Google Scholar
  5. Bandalli, S. (2000). Children, responsibility and the new youth justice. In B. Goldson (Ed.), The new youth justice (pp. 81–95). Lyme Regis: Russell House publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Bateman, T. (2012a). Criminalising children for no good purpose: The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales. London: NAYJ.Google Scholar
  7. Bateman, T. (2012b). Who pulled the plug? Towards an explanation of the fall in child imprisonment in England and Wales. Youth Justice, 12(1), 36–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bateman, T. (2013a). Keeping up (tough) appearances: The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales. Criminal Justice Matters, 92(1), 28–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bateman, T. (2013b). Detaining children at the police station: A failure to comply with legislation. London: NAYJ.Google Scholar
  10. Bateman, T. (2015a). The state of youth justice 2015. London: NAYJ.Google Scholar
  11. Bateman, T. (2015b). Trends in detected youth crime and contemporary state responses. In B. Goldson & J. Muncie (Eds.), Youth crime and justice (pp. 67–82). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Bateman, T. (in press). Youth justice. In P. Davies, J. Harding, & G. Mair (Eds.), Criminal justice in England and Wales: An introduction. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Bateman, T., & Hazel, N. (2014). Resettlement of girls and young women: Research report. London: Beyond Youth Custody.Google Scholar
  14. Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bowles, R., Garcia Reyes, M., & Pradiptyo, R. (2005). Safer schools partnerships. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
  16. Cadman, S. (2005). Proportionality in the youth justice system. In T. Bateman & J. Pitts (Eds.), The RHP companion to youth justice (pp. 59–64). Lyme Regis: Russell House publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Cape, E. (2011). Defending suspects at police stations (6th ed.). London: Legal Action Group.Google Scholar
  18. Carlile, L. A. (2014). Report of independent Parliamentarians’ inquiry into the operation and effectiveness of the youth court. London: Sieff Foundation.Google Scholar
  19. Centre for Social Justice. (2012). Rules of engagement: Changing the heart of youth justice. London: CSJ.Google Scholar
  20. Children’s Commissioner for England. (2015). Unlocking potential: A study of the isolation of children in custody in England. London: Children’s Commissioner for England.Google Scholar
  21. Conservative Party. (2015). Strong leadership; a clear economic plan; a brighter more secure future: Conservative party manifesto 2015. London: Conservative Party.Google Scholar
  22. Criminal Justice Joint Inspection. (2011). Who’s looking out for the children? A joint inspection of appropriate adult provision and children in detention after charge. London: CJJI.Google Scholar
  23. Curtis, S. (2005). The welfare principle. In T. Bateman & J. Pitts (Eds.), The RHP companion to youth justice (pp. 53–58). Lyme Regis: Russell House publishing.Google Scholar
  24. Department for Education. (2015). Children looked after in England (including adoption and care leavers) year ending 31 March 2015. London: DfE.Google Scholar
  25. Fergusson, R. (2007). Making sense of the melting pot: Multiple discourses in youth justice policy. Youth Justice, 7(3), 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flanagan, R. (2008). The review of policing: Final report. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  27. Goldson, B. (2000). The new youth justice. Lyme Regis: Russell House publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Gove, M. (2015). Announcement of a review into youth justice (Written statement to Parliament 11 September 2015). London: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  29. Graham, J., & Moore, C. (2008). Beyond welfare versus justice: Juvenile justice in England and Wales. In J. Junger-Tas & S. H. Decker (Eds.), International handbook of juvenile justice (pp. 65–92). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Great Britain. (1998). Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Elizabeth II. Chapter 37. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  31. Great Britain. (2003). Criminal Justice Act 2003. Elizabeth II. Chapter 44. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  32. Haines, K. (2010). The dragonization of youth justice. In W. Taylor, R. Earle, & R. Hester (Eds.), Youth justice handbook: Theory, policy and practice (pp. 231–242). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  33. Haines, K., & Case, S. (2015). Positive youth justice: Children first, offenders second. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hart, D. (2012). Legal Aid Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012: Implications for children. London: NAYJ.Google Scholar
  35. Hart, D. (2014). Pre-court arrangements for children who offend. London: NAYJ.Google Scholar
  36. Hazel, N. (2008). Cross national comparison of youth justice. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
  37. HM Government. (2008). Youth crime action plan 2008. London: HM Government.Google Scholar
  38. HM Inspectorate of Constabulary. (2015). The welfare of vulnerable people in police custody. London: HMIC.Google Scholar
  39. HM Inspectorate of Prisons. (2015). Report on an unannounced inspection of HMYOI Feltham (children and young people). London: HMIP.Google Scholar
  40. Holdaway, S., & Desborough, S. (2004). The national evaluation of the Youth Justice Board’s final warning projects. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
  41. Home Affairs Committee. (2007). Young black people and the criminal justice system. London: The Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  42. Home Office. (1997). No more excuses: A new approach to tackling youth crime in England and Wales. London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  43. Howard League for Penal Reform. (2015). Child arrests in England and Wales 2014. Research briefing. London: Howard League.Google Scholar
  44. Huizinga, D., Schumann, K., Ehret, B., & Elliott, A. (2003). The effect of juvenile justice system processing on subsequent delinquent and criminal behavior: A cross-national study. Washington: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  45. Just for Kids Law. (2015). 17-year olds to be treated as children at police stations. Legal update, Oct. 23, 2015.Google Scholar
  46. Kelly, L., & Armitage, V. (2015). Diverse diversions: Youth justice reform. Localized practices, and a ‘New Interventionist Diversion’? Youth Justice, 15(2), 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lipscombe, S. (2012). The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales. London: House of Commons Library.Google Scholar
  48. May, T., Gyateng, T., & Bateman, T. (2009). Exploring the needs of young black and minority ethnic offenders and the provision of targeted interventions. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
  49. May, T., Gyateng, T., & Hough, M. (2010). Differential treatment in the youth justice system. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  50. Ministry of Justice. (2013). Code of practice for youth conditional cautions. London: MoJ.Google Scholar
  51. Ministry of Justice. (2015a). Youth justice review: Terms of reference. London: MoJ.Google Scholar
  52. Ministry of Justice. (2015b). Criminal justice statistics: December 2014. London: MoJ.Google Scholar
  53. Ministry of Justice. (2015c). Youth custody data: November 2015. London: MoJ.Google Scholar
  54. Ministry of Justice/Youth Justice Board. (2015). Youth justice annual statistics 2013/14. London: MoJ.Google Scholar
  55. Monaghan, G. (2005). Children’s human rights and youth justice. In T. Bateman & J. Pitts (Eds.), The RHP companion to youth justice (pp. 46–52). Lyme Regis: Russell House publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Nacro. (2003). The sentencing framework for children and young people. London: Nacro.Google Scholar
  57. Nacro. (2006). Acting as an appropriate adult: A good practice guide. London: Nacro.Google Scholar
  58. National Audit Office. (2010). The youth justice system in England and Wales: Reducing offending by young people. London: NAO.Google Scholar
  59. National Police Chiefs’ Council. (2015). National strategy for the policing of children and young people. London: National Police Chiefs’ Council.Google Scholar
  60. Newbury, A. (2011). “I would have been able to hear what they think”: Tensions in achieving restorative outcomes in the English youth justice system. Youth Justice, 11(3), 250–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Police Foundation. (2011). Safer school partnerships. London: Police Foundation.Google Scholar
  62. Redmond, A. (2015). Children in custody 2014–15: An analysis of 12–18-year-olds’ perceptions of their experience in secure training centres and young offender institutions. London: HM Inspectorate of Prisons.Google Scholar
  63. Royal Society. (2011). Brain waves 4: Neuroscience and the law. London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
  64. Sentencing Guidelines Council. (2009). Overarching principles: Sentencing youths. London: SGC.Google Scholar
  65. Sharpe, G., & Gelsthorpe, L. (2015). Girls, crime and justice. In B. Goldson & J. Muncie (Eds.), Youth crime and justice (pp. 49–63). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Smith, R. (2014). Reinventing diversion. Youth Justice, 14(2), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Solanki, A. R., Bateman, T., Boswell, G., & Hill, E. (2006). Anti-social behaviour orders. London: Youth Justice Board.Google Scholar
  68. Souhami, A. (2007). Transforming youth justice: Occupational identity and cultural change. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  69. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2002). Concluding observations: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geneva: UN.Google Scholar
  70. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2008). Concluding observations: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geneva: UN.Google Scholar
  71. Welsh Government. (2013). The Welsh Government Contribution to the 5th UK state party report for the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
  72. Welsh Government. (2014). Children’s Rights Scheme 2014: Arrangements for having due regard to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) when Welsh Ministers exercise any of their functions. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
  73. Wigzell, A. (2014). Moving beyond the ASBO? A review of the proposed anti-social behaviour measures and their implications for children. Safer Communities, 13(2), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Social StudiesUniversity of BedfordshireLutonUK

Personalised recommendations