The Global Microbial Environments

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
  • Morgan Venable
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
  • Salvatore Parisi


Environment is microscopic and global in scale. The roles of “microbes on climate go back billions of years” with nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis. Microbial communities shifted Earth to an “oxygenated atmosphere,” and some organisms living on Earth for a billion years could “no longer survive on the Earth’s surface.” Before an industrial mean to fix nitrogen was discovered a century ago, all nitrogen except of “a limited amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed by lightning” relied “on microbes to convert nitrogen into usable form” for all living beings. Humans are causing similar global effects in 100 years. Extreme weather patterns and logical consequences on “climate-sensitive diseases and parasites” in water and food contexts seem to be “mounting all over the world.”


Niches Habitat Nitrogen fixation Photosynthesis Feedback El Niño La Niña Endemic Surface and groundwater Estuaries Extreme weather Outbreaks 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
    • 1
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
    • 1
  • Morgan Venable
    • 2
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
    • 3
  • Salvatore Parisi
    • 4
  1. 1.bioethica food safety engineering sagl.Lugano-PregassonaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Consultant Registered DieticianMedegliaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Salumificio Sciaroni S.A.SementinaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Industrial ConsultantPalermoItaly

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