Advertisement

Food Microbiology Seen from Different Angles

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
  • Morgan Venable
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
  • Salvatore Parisi
Chapter

Abstract

With the gradual acceptance of the germ theory of disease, excessive emphasis was given to the pathogen, which was considered to be the only cause of disease. The triad concept of disease was developed in plant pathology to account for the roles of the environment and the susceptible host in disease development as well. Since animals unlike plants have more complex defense mechanisms and can escape from diseases, we must consider host-pathogen interactions, environmental conditions, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the host, such as the immune systems and the microbiomes, as well as the ability of the host to escape and avoid contagion by taking appropriate decisions based on food risks. An octahedron model can therefore help in the visualization of these complex interactions, as they will be discussed in the following chapters in such order.

Keywords

Pathogen Suscept Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters Innate and acquired immunity Microbiomes Sanitation Hygiene Risks management 

References

  1. 40.
    Merril W (1980) Theory and concepts of plant pathology. In: Historical development of agriculture and plant pathology, 2nd edn. Department of Plant Pathology The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, pp 17–26, Chapter 1Google Scholar
  2. 41.
    Francl LJ (2001) The disease triangle: a plant pathological paradigm revisited. http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/instcomm/TeachingArticles/Pages/DiseaseTriangle.aspx. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  3. 42.
    Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA (2005) Modern food microbiology. In: Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, 7th edn. Springer, New York, p 39, Chapter 3Google Scholar
  4. 43.
    Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA (2005) Modern food microbiology. In: Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods that affect microbial growth, 7th edn. Springer, New York, p 54, Chapter 3Google Scholar
  5. 44.
    Cruse JM, Lewis RE (2010) Atlas of immunology. In: History of immunology, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, p 79, Chapter 1Google Scholar
  6. 45.
    Cruse JM, Lewis RE (2010) Atlas of immunology. In: Molecules, cells, and tissues of the immune response, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 152–153, Chapter 2Google Scholar
  7. 46.
    Cruse JM, Lewis RE (2010) Atlas of immunology. In: Immunity against microorganisms, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, p 730, Chapter 24Google Scholar
  8. 47.
    Cruse JM, Lewis RE (2010) Atlas of immunology. In: Immunity against microorganisms, 3rd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, p 717, Chapter 24Google Scholar
  9. 48.
    Durham S (2006) Food safety: from farm to fork. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2006/061023.htm. Accessed 25 Dec 2014

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
    • 1
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
    • 1
  • Morgan Venable
    • 2
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
    • 3
  • Salvatore Parisi
    • 4
  1. 1.bioethica food safety engineering sagl.Lugano-PregassonaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Consultant Registered DieticianMedegliaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Salumificio Sciaroni S.A.SementinaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Industrial ConsultantPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations