Advertisement

Food Safety Considerations About Selected Causative Agents

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
  • Morgan Venable
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
  • Salvatore Parisi
Chapter

Abstract

Microbial pathogens are not different from other life forms, and ultimately “we are all hosts and prey, parasites and predators.” Even common terms like pathogens and infections are defined differently according to the scientific discipline concerned. Foodborne diseases depend on the integration of complex set of circumstances, and “almost any bacterial species is capable of producing intestinal symptoms if swallowed in sufficient numbers.” “Outbreaks occur whenever pathogenic agents in sufficient number or quantity encounter a susceptible population without effective interceptive measure,” and “if we did not expect it,” we would assume that it “emerged.” The ultimate sources of foodborne pathogens directly or indirectly are humans and animals, and as our knowledge progresses, we have to face the fact that “microorganisms are opponents with whom we cannot race on their terms.”

Keywords

Obligate pathogen Opportunistic and facultative Accidental pathogen Emerging Zoonoses Zoonotic agents Dysentery Gastroenteritis Serogroup Serotype Shigellosis Typhoid fever Cholera Non-typhoid Salmonella Listeria Campylobacter 

References

  1. 16.
    Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA (2005) Modern food microbiology. In: History of microorganisms in food, 7th edn. NewYork, Springer, pp 3–12, Chapter 1Google Scholar
  2. 24.
    Beck R (2000) Chronology of microbiology in historical context. In: A chronology of microbiology in historical context. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 1–335. doi: 10.1128/9781555818081.ch1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 39.
    FDA, Food and Drug Administration (2012) Bad bug book, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins, 2nd ed, pp 1–292. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2013
  4. 59.
    Jay JM, Loessner MJ, Golden DA (2005) Modern food microbiology. In: Introduction to foodborne pathogens, 7th edn. Springer, New York, pp 519–544, Chapter 22Google Scholar
  5. 66.
    FDA, Food and Drug Administration (2012) Bad bug book, foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins. In: Pathogenic bacteria, 2nd ed, pp 6–115. Chapter 1. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/UCM297627.pdf. Accessed 20 July 2013
  6. 159.
    Breedlove B, Arguin PM (2015) Anthropomorphism to zoonoses: two inevitable consequences of human–animal relationships. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/12/ac-2112_article. Accessed 07 Jan 2016
  7. 160.
    Hall R (1997) Foodborne illness: implications for the future. Emerg Infect Dis 3(4):555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 161.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: Wachsmuth K, Morris GK (eds) Shigella, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 448–459Google Scholar
  9. 162.
    WHO, World Health Organization (2015) Global burden of foodborne diseases. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/foodborne-diseases/ferg/en/. Accessed 06 Dec 2015
  10. 163.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: D’Aoust J-Y (ed) Salmonella, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 328–412, Chapter 9Google Scholar
  11. 164.
    Tauxe R (1997) Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Infect Dis 3(4):425–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 165.
    Smith Y (2015) Typhoid fever history. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Typhoid-Fever-History.aspx. Accessed 10 Jan 2016
  13. 166.
    Ochiai RL et al (2005) Salmonella paratyphi A rates in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 11(11):1764–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 167.
    Newton AE, Routh JA, Mahon BE (2015) Infectious diseases related to travel: typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Chapter 3. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/typhoid-paratyphoid-fever. Accessed 14 Feb 2016
  15. 168.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: Madden JM, McCardell BA, Morris JG (eds) Vibrio cholerae, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 525–538, Chapter 12Google Scholar
  16. 169.
    CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) Vaccines. http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/vaccines.html. Accessed 14 Feb 2016
  17. 170.
    Ryan ET (2011) Haiti in the context of the current global cholera pandemic. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/11/11-0849_article. Accessed 12 July 2015
  18. 171.
    WHO, World Health Organization (2014) Cholera, areas reporting outbreaks, 2010–2013. http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_Cholera_outbreaks.png. Accessed 05 July 2015
  19. 172.
    CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (13 Dec 1991) Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk—Maryland. MMWR Weekly 40(49):844–845. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00015726.htm. Accessed 12 July 2015
  20. 173.
    CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention Cholera—Vibrio cholera infection: cholera in Haiti. http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/haiti/. Accessed 11 July 2015
  21. 174.
    CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera—Vibrio cholera infection: surveillance in Haiti. http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/haiti/surveillance.html. Accessed 11 July 2015
  22. 175.
    Mandal A (2013) Cholera. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cholera.aspx. Accessed 10 Jan 2016
  23. 176.
    Altekruse SF, Cohen ML, Swerdlow DL (1997) Emerging foodborne diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 3(3):285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 177.
    Jackson BR, Griffin PM, Cole D, Walsh K, Chai SJ (2013) Outbreak-associated Salmonella enterica serotypes and food commodities, United States, 1998–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/19/8/12-1511_article. Accessed 19 Feb 2016
  25. 178.
    CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) An Atlas of salmonella in the United States, 1968–2011: laboratory-based enteric disease surveillance. http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/pdf/salmonella-atlas-508c.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2014
  26. 179.
    EFSA, European Food Safety Authority, ECDC, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2014) The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2012. EFSA J 12(2):3547, 1–312Google Scholar
  27. 180.
    Keery I (2010) Salmonella Enteritidis control programs in the Canadian poultry industry. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/lhmr/pubs/se_control_programs0910.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2015
  28. 181.
    Isaacson RE, Torrence M, Buckley MR (eds) (2005) Preharvest food safety and security. In: A colloquium report from the American Academy of Microbiology, December 5–7, 2003, Perthshire, Scotland. American Academy of Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  29. 182.
    Buchanan RL, Smith JL, Long W (2000) Microbial risk assessment: dose-response relations and risk characterization. Int J Food Microbiol 58:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 183.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: Stiles ME (ed) Less recognized or presumptive foodborne pathogenic bacteria, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 674–719, Chapter 16Google Scholar
  31. 184.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: Lovett J (ed) Listeria monocytogenes, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 284–305, Chapter 7Google Scholar
  32. 185.
    Wikipedia (2016) Listeria monocytogenes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Listeria_monocytogenes. Accessed 04 March 2016
  33. 186.
    Doyle MP (1989) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. In: Stern NJ, Kazmi SU (eds) Campylobacter jejuni, 1st edn. M. Dekker, New York, pp 71–101, Chapter 3Google Scholar
  34. 187.
    Mead P (1999) Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5(5):607–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleardo Zaccheo
    • 1
  • Eleonora Palmaccio
    • 1
  • Morgan Venable
    • 2
  • Isabella Locarnini-Sciaroni
    • 3
  • Salvatore Parisi
    • 4
  1. 1.bioethica food safety engineering sagl.Lugano-PregassonaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Consultant Registered DieticianMedegliaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Salumificio Sciaroni S.A.SementinaSwitzerland
  4. 4.Industrial ConsultantPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations