Fast-Track 2D Seismic Processing While Drilling to Ameliorate Foothills Exploration and Optimize Well Trajectory: An Example from the Central Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Complex mechanical stratigraphy and misplaced formation tops often make petroleum exploration of foothills domains extremely challenging. As a consequence, proper seismic imaging, as well as good geological knowledge, are mandatory to optimize a well trajectory that is suited for all the targeted objectives Although the stratigraphy of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, is relatively simple, the tightening of the structures often leads to the activation of internal mechanical discontinuities and a shift of the main objectives. As a result, as is typically the case in foothills, side-tracked wells have to be carefully planned. In this case study, the first leg of the well demonstrated that the current seismic image was structurally incorrect and would not allow penetration of the deepest objectives. As consequence side-track was planned. A fast-track processing on the closest 2D line was performed to correct the dips of the drilled formations. The output helped optimize the side track trajectory and to drill ahead with better constraints.
KeywordsFoothills Seismic imaging Seismic interpretation
The authors would like to thanks Marathon Oil Company for agreeing to the publication of this paper. We also are grateful to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq Ministry of Resources for their authorization to publish this paper. We would like to express our deepest thanks to the research team of Sulaimaniya University (Dr. S.H. Ahmed, Dr. S.H.S. Hassan, Dr. I.M.J. Mohialdeen, Dr. F.A. Ameen, Dr. D.H.M. Ameen, Dr. I.M. Ghafor, Dr. F.M. Qader, Dr. A.K.S. Bety, Dr. D.F. Hamamin, Dr. Amanj and Dr. G.A. Hamasur), Dohuk University (Mr. H.S. Shaban and Dr. N.T. Shamoun) and Geological Survey of Sulaimaniya (Dr. N.M. Kadir and Dr. S.F. Ahmad) who helped us greatly in our field campaigns with their knowledgeable advices and enthusiasm.
We are also thankful to our reviewers and editor whose constructive remarks and comments helped a lot to improve this paper.
- Allen M, Jackson JA, Walker R (2004) Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics 23:16pGoogle Scholar
- Allouche H, Sapin F, Chevallier B, Brosille E (2015) Seismic imaging in western Zagros and impact on hydrocarbon exploration: a case study from Kurdistan Region of Iraq. In: Proceedings of Abu Dhabi international petroleum exhibition and conference. Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
- Ameen BM, Karim KH (2008) New sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of the upper boundary of the Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous) at Northwest of Erbil, Kurdistan Region. NE Iraq Iraqi Bull Geol Mining 4:1–13Google Scholar
- Ameen MS (1992) Effect of basement tectonics on hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Northern Iraq. AAPG Bull 76:356–370Google Scholar
- Aqrawi AA, Goff JC, Horbury AD, Sadooni FN (2010) The petroleum geology of IraqGoogle Scholar
- Buday T, Jassim SZ (1987) The regional geology of Iraq, vol 2, tectonism, magmatism and metamorphismGoogle Scholar
- Civello S, Janiseck JM, Strobbia C (2015) 2D seismic lines reprocessing test using common reflection surface technique. In: Proceedings of offshore mediterranean conference and exhibition, March 25–27th, Ravenna, ItalyGoogle Scholar
- Jassim SZ, Buday T (2006a) Tectonic framework. In: Jassim S, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. pp 45–55Google Scholar
- Jassim SZ, Buday T (2006b) Units of the unstable shelf and the zagros suture. In: Jassim SZ, Goff JC (eds) Geology of Iraq. pp 45–55Google Scholar
- Karim KH, Surdashy AM (2005) Tectonic and depositional history of upper Cretaceous Tanjero formation in Sulaimaniya area, NE-Iraq. J Zankoy Sulaimaniya Univ 8:47–61Google Scholar
- Mitra S (2002) Fold-accommodation faults. AAPG Bull 86:671–693Google Scholar
- Palaz I, Marfurt KJ (1997) Carbonate seismology: an overview. In: Palaz I, Marfurt KJ (eds) Carbonate seismology. Geophysical development Series 6, pp 1–8Google Scholar
- Poblet J, McClay K (1996) Geometry and Kinematics of single-layer detachment folds. AAPG Bull 80:1085–1109Google Scholar
- Tarrass I, Giraud L, Thore P, Aye F (2010) Modeling of seismic waves propagation in presence of topography. In: Proceedings of SEG annual meeting, October 17–22, Denver, United Sates of AmericaGoogle Scholar
- van Bellen RC, Dunnington HV, Wetzel R, Morton DM (1959) Lexique stratigraphique international, III, Asie, fasc. 10a, Iraq. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, pp 333Google Scholar
- Vergés J, Saura E, Casciello E, Fernàndez M, Villaseñor A, Jiménez-Munt I, García-Castellanos D (2011) Crustal-scale cross-sections across the NW Zagros belt: implications for the Arabian margin reconstruction. In: Lacombe O, Grasemann B, Simpson G (eds) Geodynamic evolution of the Zagros. Geol Mag 148:739–761Google Scholar
- Wiltschko D, Eastman D (1983) Role of basement warps and faults in localizing thrust fault ramps. In: Hatcher JRD, Williams H, Zietz I (eds) Contribution to the tectonics and geophysics of mountain chains. Memoir 158. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp 117–190Google Scholar
- Woodward NB, (1988) Primary and secondary basement controls on thrust sheet geometries. In: Schmidt CJ, Perry Jr W. (eds) Interaction of the rocky mountain foreland and the cordilleran thrust belt. Memoir 171. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp 353–366Google Scholar
- Yilmaz Ö, (2001) Seismic data Analysis, vol 2 In: Doherty SM. (ed) SEGGoogle Scholar