Fundamentals of Electromigration in Interconnects of 3D Packaging

  • Pilin LiuEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics book series (MICROELECTR., volume 57)


Micro bumps, through Si vias (TSV), and redistribution layers (RDL) or back-end-of-line (BEOL) layers that connected to the TSV are unique interconnects connecting the stacked Si dies in 3D packaging. Electromigration (EM) failure has been a concern for these interconnects due to high current density and joule heating. In this chapter, the key EM failure modes in these interconnects are summarized. By leveraging the EM learning from flip chip first-level interconnect solder joints and damascene Cu interconnects, failure mechanisms and factors that modulate the EM of micro bumps, TSV, and its connected Cu layers are also summarized. The impact of the unique micro bump dimensions and structures on EM will be highlighted.


Solder Joint Solder Alloy Back Stress Flip Chip Solder Joint Electron Wind Force 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The editors would like to thank Kwang-Lung Lin from National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan for his critical review of this chapter.


  1. 1.
    S.Q. Gu, MRS Bull. 40, 233 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    X. Zhang, J.K. Lin, S. Wickramanayaka, S. Zhang, R. Weerasekera, R. Dutta, K.F. Chang, K.J. Chui, H.Y. Li, D.S.W. Ho, L. Ding, G. Katti, S. Bhattacharya, D.L. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Rev. 2, 021308 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.N. Tu, H.Y. Hsiao, C. Chen, Microelectron. Reliab. 53, 2 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.N. Tu, T. Tian, Sci. China 56, 1740 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K.N. Chen, T.N. Tu, MRS Bull. 40, 219 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Xu, J.K. Han, J.J. Liang, K.N. Tu, Y.S. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 262104 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. L. Liu, F. Y. Ouyang, S. Ou, Z. Fu, G. Deepak, in ASME InterPACK Conference, vol. 1, 2009, pp. 703–709Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Chen, H.M. Tong, K.N. Tu, Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. 40, 531 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.H. Lu, D.Y. Shih, P. Lauro, C. Goldsmith, D.W. Henderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 211909 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Wang, K.H. Lu, V. Gupta, L. Stiborek, D. Shirley, S.H. Chae, J. Im, P.S. Ho, J. Mater. Res. 27, 1131 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 5451 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.K. Seo, S.K. Kang, D.Y. Shih, H.M. Lee, J. Met. 61, 22 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Lu, D.Y. Shih, S.K. Kang, C. Goldsmith, P. Flaitz, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 053509 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I.A. Blech, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1203 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.H. Lu, D.Y. Shih, P. Lauro, C. Goldsmith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 011912 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y.C. Hsu, C.K. Chou, P.C. Liu, C. Chen, D.J. Yao, T. Chou, K.N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033523 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.S. Yoon, M.K. Ko, B.N. Kim, B.J. Kim, Y.B. Park, Y.C. Joo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 073701 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. R. Black, in Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1967, p. 148Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T.C. Huang, T.L. Yang, J.H. Ke, C.H. Hsueh, C.R. Kao, Scr. Mater. 80, 37 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Wang, P.S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 121909 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. L. Liu, O. Alan, D. Goyal, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2015, p. 95Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A.U. Telang, T.R. Bieler, Scr. Mater. 52, 1027 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Sylvestre, A. Blander, J. Electron. Mater. 37, 1618 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L.P. Lehman, Y. Xing, T.R. Bieler, E.J. Cotts, Acta Mater. 58, 3546 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Arfaei, N. Kim, E.J. Cotts, J. Electron. Mater. 41, 362 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Zhang, F. Sun, X. Li, Y. Liu, T. Xin, in 16th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, 2015, p. 1125Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.C. Yeh, H.B. Huntington, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1469 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y.W. Chang, C. Chen, T.C. Chang, C.J. Zhan, J.Y. Juang, A.T. Huang, Mater. Lett. 137, 136 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Chen, D. Yu, K.N. Chen, MRS Bull. 40, 257 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. Y. Chen, C. H. Tung, Y. L. Hsiao, J. L. Wu, T. C. Yeh, L. L. C. Lin, C. Chen, D. C. H. Yu, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2015, p. 620Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Shih, C. C. Wei, C. H. Tung, Y. L. Hsiao, D. C. H. Yu, Y. C. Liang, C. Chen, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2015, p. 49Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.C. Wei, C.F. Chen, P.C. Liu, C. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 023715 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y. B. Park, S. H. Kim, J. J. Park, J. B. Kim, H. Y. Son, K. W. Han, J. S. Oh, N. S. Kim, S. Yoo, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2013, p. 1988Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.Y. Kim, J. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092109 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Kumar, J. Smetana, D. Love, J. Watkowski, R. Parker, C.A. Handwerker, J. Electron. Mater. 40, 2415 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Wang, S. H. Chae, J. Im, P. S. Ho, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2013, p. 1953Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P.L. Liu, J.K. Shang, Scr. Mater. 53, 631 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Chen, H.Y. Hsiao, Y.W. Chang, F.Y. Ouyang, K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R 73, 85 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F.Y. Ouyang, W.C. Jhu, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 043711 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Hsu, T.Y. Lin, F.Y. Ouyang, J. Electron. Mater. 43, 236 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Zeng, K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. Eng. R 38, 55 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    H.Y. Chen, C. Chen, K.N. Tu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 122103 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    H.-Y. Chen, C. Chen, J. Mater. Res. 26, 983 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    W.N. Hsu, F.Y. Ouyang, Mater. Chem. Phys. 165, 66 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C.M. Tan, A. Roy, Mater. Sci. Eng. R 58, 1 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C.K. Hu, L. Gignac, E. Liniger, B. Herbst, D.L. Rath, S.T. Chen, S. Kaldor, A. Simon, W.T. Tseng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 869 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Z.H. Gan, W. Shao, S.G. Mhaisalkar, Z. Chen, H. Li, K.N. Tu, A.M. Gusak, J. Mater. Res. 21, 2241 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C.M. Tan, A. Roy, A.V. Vairagar, A. Krishnamoorthy, S.G. Mhaisalkar, IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 5, 198 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M.W. Lane, E.G. Liniger, J.R. Lloyd, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1417 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K.N. Tu, C.C. Yeh, C.Y. Liu, C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 988 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.R. Lloyd, Microelectron. Eng. 49, 51 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.R. Lloyd, P.M. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 455 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    L. Kisselgof, S. P. Baranowski, M. C. Broomfield, T. Spooner, L. Elliott, L. Brooke, J. R. Lloyd, in Proceedings of the SPIE 1805, 1992, p. 154Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Y. Oba, J.D. Messemaeker, A.M. Tyrovouzi, Y. Miyamori, J.D. Vos, T. Wang, G. Beyer, E. Beyne, I.D. Wolf, K. Croes, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54, 05EE01 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    H. J. Choi, S. M. Choi, M. S. Yeo, S. D. Cho, D. C. Baek, J. Park, in Interconnect Technology Conference (IITC), IEEE International, 2012, p. 1Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. Moreau, D. Bouchu, in Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), IEEE International, 2013, p. CP.1.1Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Frank, S. Moreau, C. Chappaz, L. Arnaud, P. Leduc, A. Thuaire, L. Anghel, in Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2012, p. 326Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intel CorporationChandlerUSA

Personalised recommendations