Quantification in Kusunda

Part of the Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy book series (SLAP, volume 97)


Quantification in Kusunda can be generally described as involving radical underspecification. Many syntactic traits of quantification are shared in outline with other kinds of modification in the phrase and in the clause, and the level of underspecification is also shared with other subsystems of the language. Quantification in Kusunda, then, can be described as not showing significant variance from the general architecture of the language, and not appearing to tightly delimit the range of possibilities for identification or enumeration of arguments or events.


  1. Blench, R. (2008). Re-evaluating the linguistic prehistory of South Asia. In T. Osada, & A. Uesugi (Eds.), Linguistics, archaeology and the human past (pp. 159–178). Kyoto: Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (Occasional Paper 3).Google Scholar
  2. Dhakal, D. N. (2014). Contact-induced changes in Baram. Northeast Indian Linguistics (NEIL) 6, 167–190. Canberra, Australian National University: Asia-Pacific Linguistics Open Access.Google Scholar
  3. Donohue, M. (2013). Kusunda linguistics. (Webpage:
  4. Donohue, M., & Gautam, B. R. (2013). Evidence and stance in Kusunda. Nepalese Linguistics, 28, 38–47.Google Scholar
  5. Donohue, M., Gautam, B. R., & Pokhrel, M. P. (2014). Negation in Kusunda. Language, 90(3), 737–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gil, D. (2013). Distributive numerals. In M. S. Dryer, & M. Haspelmath (Eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available online at Accessed 17 Oct 2014.
  7. Grierson, G. A. (1909). Linguistic survey of India, Vol III, part I. New Delhi: Motilal Banasidass.Google Scholar
  8. Hodgson, B. H. (1848). On the Chépáng and Kúsúnda tripes of Népal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 17(2), 650–658.Google Scholar
  9. Hodgson, B. H. (1857). Comparative vocabulary of the languages of the broken tribes of Nepal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 26, 317–371.Google Scholar
  10. Mühlhäusler, P. (1995). Linguistic ecology: Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific Rim. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Pokharel Madhav, P. (2005). Strategies of pronominalization in Kusunda. In Y. Yogendra, B. Govind Raj, L. Ram Raj, P. Balaram, & P. Krishna (Eds.), Contemporary issues in Nepalese linguistics (pp. 189–192). Kathmandu: Linguistic Society of Nepal.Google Scholar
  12. Rana, B. K. (May 11–13, 2002). New materials on the Kusunda language. Paper presented to the fourth harvard roundtable international conference on Ethnogenesis of South and Central Asia, Harvard University, 2002.Google Scholar
  13. Reinhard, J. G., & Toba, S. (1970). A preliminary linguistic analysis and vocabulary of the Kusunda language. MS. Kathmandu: Summer Institute of Linguistics and Tribhuvan University.Google Scholar
  14. Stassen, L. (2013). Comparative constructions. In M. S. Dryer & M. Haspelmath (Eds.), The world atlas of language structures online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Available online at Accessed 17 Oct 2014.
  15. Van Driem, G. (2001). The languages of the Himalayas. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  16. Watters, D. E. (2005). Kusunda: A typological isolate in South Asia. Journal of Linguistic Society of Nepal. Kathmandu: Linguistic Society of Nepal.Google Scholar
  17. Watters, D. E., Yadava, Y. P., Madhav, P. P., & Prasain, B. (2006). Notes on Kusunda grammar. Himalayan Linguistics Archive, 3, 1–182. (Previously published as Watters et al. 2005. Notes on Kusunda Grammar. Kathmandu: National Foundation for the Development of Indigenous Nationalities.)Google Scholar
  18. Whitehouse, P., Usher, T., Ruhlen, M., & Wang, W. S.-Y. (2004). Kusunda: An Indo-Pacific language in Nepal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(15), 5692–5695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Linguistics, College of Asia and the PacificThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies (CNAS)Tribhuvan UniversityKirtipurNepal

Personalised recommendations