Effects of MMP on Women in New Zealand

  • Tracy-Ann Johnson-MyersEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Political Science book series (BRIEFSPOLITICAL)


This chapter of the book focuses on the representational gains that have been made by women in New Zealand as a result of the Mixed Member Proportional system. The introduction of MMP in 1996 and subsequent elections contributed to increased representation for female MPs at both the legislative and executive level. MMP has played a crucial role in increasing the number of women in Parliament, with more female MPs in the last 20 years (1996–2016) than there were since women became eligible to vote. Today, women occupy 38 (31 %) of the 121 seats in the House of Representatives. While this figure still does not effectively represent the percentage of women in the New Zealand population, there is little doubt that MMP has contributed to the election of more women in the House of Representatives. An effect of the increase in women’s political representation in New Zealand has been an upsurge in the number of women in leadership positions such as Prime Ministers, Cabinet Ministers, Speakers of the House, party leaders, chairs/deputies of select committees and mayors.


Coalition Government Labour Party Select Committee Green Party Pacific People 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West IndiesKingstonJamaica

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