Advertisement

Neurological Emergencies

  • Todd Harshbarger
  • Rahul Jandial
Chapter

Abstract

Most physicians will care for patients with cancer. Neurological complications of cancer can be severely disabling or even life threatening. Thus, prompt recognition and proper management of neurological emergencies in these patients are critical to preserve function and lengthen survival.

Keywords

Cord Compression Neurosurgical Intervention Acoustic Neuroma Pituitary Apoplexy Lower Cranial Nerve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. 1.
    Anderson JM. Diabetic ketoacidosis presenting as neurosurgical emergencies. Br Med J. 1974;3(5922):22–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldwin KJ, Zivkovic SA, Lieberman FS. Neurologic emergencies in patients who have cancer: diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin. 2012;30(1):101–28. viii.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonicki W, Kasperlik-Zaluska A, Koszewski W, Zgliczynski W, Wislawski J. Pituitary apoplexy: endocrine, surgical and oncological emergency. Incidence, clinical course and treatment with reference to 799 cases of pituitary adenomas. Acta Neurochir. 1993;120(3–4):118–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bunyan RF, Tang J, Weinshenker B. Acute demyelinating disorders: emergencies and management. Neurol Clin. 2012;30(1):285–307. ix–x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cartalat-Carel S, Honnorat J. Neurological complications of cancer. Rev Prat. 2003;53(19):2147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cordonnier M, Van Nechel C. Neuro-ophthalmological emergencies: which ocular signs or symptoms for which diseases? Acta Neurol Belg. 2013;113(3):215–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dalessio DJ. Diagnosing the severe headache. Neurology. 1994;44(5 Suppl 3):S6–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis S, Lees K, Donnan G. Treating the acute stroke patient as an emergency: current practices and future opportunities. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60(4):399–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evoli A, Batocchi AP, Tonali P. A practical guide to the recognition and management of myasthenia gravis. Drugs. 1996;52(5):662–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feske SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin. 1998;16(2):237–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fey MF. Emergencies in patients with tumors. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1993;123(15):721–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freeman WD. Management of intracranial pressure. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn). 2015;21(5 Neurocritical Care):1299–323.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frucht SJ. Treatment of movement disorder emergencies. Neurotherapeutics. 2014;11(1):208–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Futrell N, Millikan CH. Stroke is an emergency. Dis Mon. 1996;42(4):199–264.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson S, McConigley R. Unplanned oncology admissions within 14 days of non-surgical discharge: a retrospective study. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24(1):311–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Graves JS, Galetta SL. Acute visual loss and other neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies: management. Neurol Clin. 2012;30(1):75–99. viii.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guven M, Bayram F, Guven K, Kelestimur F. Evaluation of patients admitted with hypoglycaemia to a teaching hospital in Central Anatolia. Postgrad Med J. 2000;76(893):150–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hasselbalch HC, Mourits-Andersen HT, Jensen BA, Jensen MK, Nielsen OJ. Acute thrombotic complication at the debute of the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative syndrome. Ugeskr Laeger. 2001;163(18):2478–81. Akut trombotisk komplikation ved debut af det Philadelphia-kromosom-negative myeloproliferative syndrom. dan.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holtkamp M. Treatment strategies for refractory status epilepticus. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011;17(2):94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hughes RA, Bihari D. Acute neuromuscular respiratory paralysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56(4):334–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hurwitz TA. Psychogenic unresponsiveness. Neurol Clin. 2011;29(4):995–1006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jandial R, Chen MY. Mini-open transpedicular lumbar vertebrectomy reconstructed with double cages and short segment fixation. Surg Neurol Int. 2012;3 Suppl 5:S362–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jandial R, Chen MY. Modified lateral extracavitary approach for vertebral column resection and expandable cage reconstruction of thoracic spinal metastases. Surg Neurol Int. 2012;3:136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jandial R, Kelly B, Chen MY. Posterior-only approach for lumbar vertebral column resection and expandable cage reconstruction for spinal metastases. J Neurosurg Spine. 2013;19(1):27–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnston KC, Haley Jr EC. Emergency imaging of the acute stroke patient. J Neuroimaging. 1997;7(2):111–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Joseph KR, Richards KC, Rotenberg JS. Rash, fever, and neck pain in the office: is this a neurologic emergency? Pediatr Ann. 2005;34(11):878–84; quiz 93–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kelley BC, Arnold PM, Anderson KK. Spinal emergencies. J Neurosurg Sci. 2012;56(2):113–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kelley RE, Martin-Schild S. Ischemic stroke: emergencies and management. Neurol Clin. 2012;30(1):187–210. ix.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Keshavarzi S, Aryan HE. Multilevel lateral extra-cavitary corpectomy and reconstruction for non-contiguous metastatic lesions to the spine: case report and literature review. J Surg Oncol. 2009;99(5):314–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim SH, Shin YS, Yoon PH, Kim DI. Emergency endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery injury during a transsphenoidal approach for a pituitary tumor—case report. Yonsei Med J. 2002;43(1):119–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Klekamp J, Samii H. Surgical results for spinal metastases. Acta Neurochir. 1998;140(9):957–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kottapally M, Josephson SA. Common neurologic emergencies for nonneurologists: when minutes count. Cleve Clin J Med. 2016;83(2):116–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kraus JJ, Metzler MD, Coplin WM. Critical care issues in stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Res. 2002;24 Suppl 1:S47–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Law M. Neurological complications. Cancer Imaging. 2009;9 Spec No A:S71–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lo SS, Lutz ST, Chang EL, Galanopoulos N, Howell DD, Kim EY, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) spinal bone metastases. J Palliat Med. 2013;16(1):9–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Munhoz RP, Scorr LM, Factor SA. Movement disorders emergencies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2015;28(4):406–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nentwich L, Ulrich AS. High-risk chief complaints II: disorders of the head and neck. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2009;27(4):713–46. x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ng L, Wang J, Altaweel L, Athar MK. Neurologic aspects of cardiac emergencies. Crit Care Clin. 2014;30(3):557–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pellock JM. Overview: definitions and classifications of seizure emergencies. J Child Neurol. 2007;22(5 Suppl):9S–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pengiran Tengah DS, Byrne PO, Wills AJ. Urgent 2-week referrals for CNS/brain tumours: a retrospective audit. Clin Oncol. 2003;15(1):7–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Plum F, Posner JB. [The diagnosis of stupor and coma]. Brain Nerve. 2015;67(3):344–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pruitt AA. Infections of the nervous system. Neurol Clin. 1998;16(2):419–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pruitt AA. Neurologic infectious disease emergencies. Neurol Clin. 2012;30(1):129–59. viii.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Quinn JA, DeAngelis LM. Neurologic emergencies in the cancer patient. Semin Oncol. 2000;27(3):311–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robottom BJ, Factor SA, Weiner WJ. Movement disorders emergencies Part 2: hyperkinetic disorders. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(6):719–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Robottom BJ, Weiner WJ, Factor SA. Movement disorders emergencies. Part 1: hypokinetic disorders. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(5):567–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rose JC, Mayer SA. Optimizing blood pressure in neurological emergencies. Neurocrit Care. 2004;1(3):287–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rubin MN, Rabinstein AA. Vascular diseases of the spinal cord. Neurol Clin. 2013;31(1):153–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Samphao S, Eremin JM, Eremin O. Oncological emergencies: clinical importance and principles of management. Eur J Cancer Care. 2010;19(6):707–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sato K, Sugawara T, Fujiwara S, Mizoi K, Yoshimoto T. A case of small meningioma with acute subdural hematoma. No Shinkei Geka. 1989;17(7):687–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sheerin F, Collison K, Quaghebeur G. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute intramedullary myelopathy: radiological differential diagnosis for the on-call radiologist. Clin Radiol. 2009;64(1):84–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shelton BA, O’Hara E, Tubbs RS, Shoja MM, Barker FG, Cohen-Gadol AA. Emergency suboccipital decompression for respiratory arrest during supratentorial surgery: the untold story of a surgeon’s courage in times of despair. J Neurosurg. 2009;110(2):391–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Solenski NJ. Transient ischemic attacks: Part I. Diagnosis and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(7):1665–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Spencer TS, Campellone JV, Maldonado I, Huang N, Usmani Q, Reginato AJ. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of neurosarcoidosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005;34(4):649–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stephenson K, Wilkinson J. Non-traumatic neurological emergencies presenting to the intensive care unit. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2011;72(5):264–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weintraub MI. Thrombolysis (tissue plasminogen activator) in stroke: a medicolegal quagmire. Stroke. 2006;37(7):1917–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weisz RR, Fazal M. Colloid cyst of the third ventricle—a neurological emergency. Ann Emerg Med. 1983;12(12):783–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Williams VB. Neurologic emergencies in sports. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn). 2014;20(6 Sports Neurology):1629–44.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wray SH. The management of acute visual failure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56(3):234–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wurm J, Gode U, Fucak A. Ligature of the carotid arteries performed prophylactically or as an emergency procedure in patients with malignant tumours of the head and neck. HNO. 2000;48(1):22–7. Prophylaktische und notfallmassige Unterbindungen der Aa. carotides bei Patienten mit malignen Tumoren im Kopf-Hals-Gebiet. ger.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yamaji S, Kanamori H, Tanaka M, Mishima A, Koharazawa H, Fujita H, et al. Successful emergency operation for subdural hematoma and acute epidural hematoma in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Rinsho Ketsueki. 1999;40(7):606–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurosurgical OncologyCity of Hope Cancer CenterDuarteUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of SurgeryCity of HopeDuarteUSA

Personalised recommendations