Syntactic Enrichment of LMF Normalized Dictionaries Based on the Context-Field Corpus

  • Imen ElleuchEmail author
  • Bilel GargouriEmail author
  • Abdelmajid Ben HamadouEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9561)


In this paper, we deal with the representation of syntactic knowledge, particularly the syntactic behavior of verbs. In this context, we propose an approach to identify syntactic behaviors from a corpus based on the LMF Context-Field in order to enrich the syntactic extension of LMF normalized dictionary. Our approach consists of the following steps: (i) Identification of syntactic patterns, (ii) Construction of a grammar suitable for each syntactic pattern, (iii) Construction of a corpus from the LMF normalized dictionary, (iv) Application of grammars to the corpus and (v) Enrichment of the LMF dictionary. To validate this approach, we carried out an experiment that focuses on the syntactic behavior of Arabic verbs. We used the NooJ linguistic platform and an available LMF Arabic dictionary that contains 37,000 entries and 10,800 verbs. The obtained results concerning more than 7,800 treated verbs show 85 % of precision and 87 % of recall.


Syntactic behavior Enrichment LMF dictionary Grammar Nooj platform Arabic dictionary 


  1. 1.
    Kipper, K., Dang, T.H., Plamer, M.: Class-bases construction of a verb lexicon. In: AAAI-2000 Seventeeth National Conference on Artifical Intelligence, Austin (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grishman, R., Macleod, C., Meyers, A.: Comlex syntax: building a computational lexicon. In: Proceedings of COLING 1994, pp. 268–272 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanfilippo, A.: Lkb encoding of lexical knowledge. In: Default Inheritance in Unification-Based Approaches to the Lexiocn. CUP, Cambridge (1993)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sagot, B.: The lefff, a freely available and large-coverage morphological and syntactic lexicon for french. In: 7th Language Resource and Evaluation Conference LREC 2010, La Valette, Malte (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van den Eynde, K., Mertens, P.: Le dictionnaire de valence DICOVALENCE: manuel d’utilisation (2006).
  6. 6.
    Van den Eynde, K., Blanche-Benveniste, C.: Syntaxe et mécanismes descriptifs: présentation de l’approche pronominale, Cahiers de Lexicologie n 32, pp. 3–27 (1978)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gross, M.: Méthodes en syntaxe: Régimes des constructions complétives. Hermann, Paris (1975)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mousser, J.: A large coverage verb taxonomy for Arabic. In: LREC 2010, Italy, Malte (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loukil, N., Haddar, K., Ben Hamadou, A.: A syntactic lexicon for Arabic verbs. In: International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC, pp. 17–23, Valletta, Malta, May 2010Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bielický, V., Smrž, O.: Enhancing the ElixirFM lexicon with verbal valency frames. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Arabic Language Resources and Tools (MEDAR 2009), Cairo, Egypt (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Francopoulo, G., George, M.: ISO/TC 37/SC 4 Rev.16. Language resource management − Lexical markup framework (LMF) (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laporte, E., Matthieu-Constant, E.: Conversion of lexicon-grammar tables to LMF: application to French. In: LMF: Lexical Markup Framework, pp. 157–187. Wiley Editions, March 2013. ISBN: 9781848214309Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khemakhem, A., Gargouri, B., Haddar, K., Ben Hamadou, A.: LMF for Arabic. In: LMF: Lexical Markup Framework, pp. 83–96. Wiley Editions, March 2013. ISBN: 9781848214309Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Soria, C., Monachini, M., Vossen, P.: Wordnet-LMF: fleshing out a standardized format for wordnet interoperability. In: International Worksop on Intercultural Collaboration, IWIC 2009, pp. 139–146 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Habash, N., Soudi, A., Buckwalter, T.: Arabic Computational Morphology: Knowledge-Based and Empirical Methods. Springer, Netherlands (2007). ISBN: 978-1-4020-6045-8Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blachère, R., Gaudefroy-Demombunes, M.: Grammaire de l’Arabe classique (Morphologie et syntaxe). Troisième édition revue et remaniée. G-P. MAISONNEUE & LAROSE, Editeurs, Paris (1952)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Addahdeh, A.: Open image in new windowLibrairie Libanon Nachirun (1996)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elleuch, I., Gargouri, B., Ben-Hamadou, A.: Towards automatic enrichment of standardized electronic dictionaries by semantic classes. In: Proceeding of the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing (ROCLING), Zhongli, Taiwan, 25−26 September 2014, pp. 96-109 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levin, B.: English Verb Classes and Alternations. A Preliminary Investigation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MIRACL LaboratoryFSEGSSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.ISIMSSakiet-Ezzit SfaxTunisia

Personalised recommendations